Sunday, October 31, 2010

Chapter 8 - The real meaning of 'Gog and Magog'

Chapter 8 - The real meaning of 'Gog and Magog'




The subject concerning 'Gog and Magog' is also another misunderstood event by most readers and even historical commentators of the "Abrahamic" religions. The interpretation given by St. Augustine of Hippo concerning his observation is later to be shown to be correct in describing the identity of 'Gog and Magog'. St. Augustine gives us the true meaning of 'Gog and Magog' as being a spiritual manifestation. However, the rest of the observation is inundated with Millennialistic overtones. These overtones and undertones derive from John’s Millennialism within the Book of Revelation. However, John’s Millennialism is a spin-off and error based on Paul’s Dispensationalism. First, the attempt will be made to correct and elaborate St. Augustine’s interpretation by offering a proposed theory which is supported by biblical evidence. St. Augustine of Hippo must be congratulated for metaphysical and dogmatic defense. Furthermore, his work is a necessary step that will reveal to the readers the true and original meanings 'Gog and Magog'.



St.Augustine of Hippo stated in his treatise - ' City of God ':

Chapter 11.—Of Gog and Magog, Who are to Be Roused by the Devil to Persecute the Church, When He is Loosed in the End of the World.

“And when the thousand years are finished, Satan shall be loosed from his prison, and shall go out to seduce the nations which are in the four corners of the earth, Gog and Magog, and shall draw them to battle, whose number is as the sand of the sea.” This then, is his purpose in seducing them, to draw them to this battle. For even before this he was wont to use as many and various seductions as he could continue. And the words “he shall go out” mean, he shall burst forth from lurking hatred into open persecution. For this persecution, occurring while the final judgment is imminent, shall be the last which shall be endured by the holy Church throughout the world, the whole city of Christ being assailed by the whole city of the devil, as each exists on earth. For these nations which he names Gog and Magog are not to be understood of some barbarous nations in some part of the world, whether the Getæ and Massagetæ, as some conclude from the initial letters, or some other foreign nations not under the Roman government. For John marks that they are spread over the whole earth, when he says, “The nations which are in the four corners of the earth,” and he added that these are Gog and Magog. The meaning of these names we find to be, Gog, “a roof,” Magog, “from a roof,”—a house, as it were, and he who comes out of the house. They are therefore the nations in which we found that the devil was shut up as in an abyss, and the devil himself coming out from them and going forth, so that they are the roof, he from the roof. Or if we refer both words to the nations, not one to them and one to the devil, then they are both the roof, because in them the old enemy is at present shut up, and as it were roofed in; and they shall be from the roof when they break forth from concealed to open hatred. The words, “And they went up on the breadth of the earth, and encompassed the camp of the saints and the beloved city,” do not mean that they have come, or shall come, to one place, as if the camp of the saints and the beloved city should be in some one place; for this camp is nothing else than the Church of Christ extending over the whole world. And consequently wherever the Church shall be,—and it shall be in all nations, as is signified by “the breadth of the earth,”—there also shall be the camp of the saints and the beloved city, and there it shall be encompassed by the savage persecution of all its enemies; for they too shall exist along with it in all nations,—that is, it shall be straightened, and hard pressed, and shut up in the straits of tribulation, but shall not desert its military duty, which is signified by the word “camp.” (Source: City of God , Book 20,Chapter 11)

The answer is clear concerning the riddle of 'Gog and Magog'. The Ezekiel prophecy was intended for the events surrounding the construction of the Second Temple. When Ezekiel wrote down this section concerning 'Gog and Magog' it was meant as a spiritual entity. Furthermore, his mention of 'Gog and Magog', was an explanation to the spiritual manifestation of forces against the construction of the Second Temple. The mention by John, if he was following the same pattern of Ezekiel, was presenting a spiritual manifestation of forces supporting the rise of a physical rebellion. This would mean that John’s mention of 'Gog and Magog' was directed against a post-Roman entity and those who have never accepted the gospel. Moreover, the prediction will be proven false and its descriptive language may be a derivative of later pre-Amillennialism. Furthermore, through the spiritualized description given by John, the post-Roman entity rises after A.D. 1140 the end of the supposed 1,000 year reign/rule of Jesus. Ezekiel's 'Gog and Magog' and John's 'Gog and Magog' flows in different directions. For example, Ezekiel 'Gog and Magog' is rather physical to spiritual opposition while John's 'Gog and Magog' is spiritual to physical opposition to the new Temple being Jesus himself. The order of Temples: 1st Temple of Solomon, 2nd Temple of Zerubbabel(Herod), and 3rd Temple being Jesus himself (Revelation 21:3 & Revelation 22:21).

The apocalyptic message of John was meant for those living during Roman times. It was neither meant nor intended for any time after A.D. 1140. If Revelation 21:22 is the actual physical body of Jesus then by reading the rest of the chapter (Revelation 21:23-27) we get the conclusion that 'Gog and Magog' are nations who refuse to accept Jesus as the Messiah (Revelation 20:8, Revelation 18:13, Revelation 1:7). The mention of "slaves" and "those who pierced him" indicates the era of which these verses were intended to be manifested. The supporting proof would be the identity of who and what is "Babylon" in the Book of Revelation (Revelation 14:8 and 1st Peter 4:13) which is the Roman Empire. Finally, the mention of seven hills or mountains (Revelation 17:9) positively identifies the Roman Empire. Nevertheless, 'Gog' stated in the Book of Revelation is the human populace roused to fight Jesus and his saints at Jerusalem. 'Magog' would be represented as Satan (Revelation 20:7-8) the one who instigated the war. The imagery of the instigation is the second and final series to the temptation of Adam (Genesis Chapter three) but this time Adam is represented as the whole Human race given the designation as 'Gog & Magog' in the Book of Revelation 20:8.

The proper order of events: In A.D. 70; the "captivity" repeated by the Romans and earlier initiated by the Babylonians, lead twice to the physical destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem. Furthermore, this would be the signal to begin the cycle (The importance of the seventy years cycle is explained in another chapter of this book). A.D. 70 to A.D. 140 is the actual GREAT tribulation of the Book of Revelation in which it was intended (Revelation 1:9, Revelation 2:9, and Revelation 7:14). Yes, the first two verses tell us two types of eras: (1) The years before the destruction of the Temple in A.D. 70 are considered the tribulation and those years after A.D. 70 are the GREAT tribulation. (2) The last verse, Revelation 7:14, tells of an actual physical resurrection which is the first physical resurrection of the whole Christian congregation or community. The actual and physical thousand years reign of Messiah Jesus and his followers occur between - A.D. 140 to A.D. 1140 (Revelation 20:6).

The total apocalyptic model within the Book of Revelation:


1. The Pre Tribulation era before Jesus crucifixion

2. The Tribulation era after the crucifixion of Jesus

3. The Great Tribulation era, initiated with the destruction of the Temple in A.D. 70.

4. The Rapture event at A.D. 140.

5. The 1,000 year reign or rule lasting until A.D. 1140.

6. The Judgment war of 'Gog and Magog'

7. The Lake of Fire event

8. The city of New Jerusalem ( 'City of God’ ) era

*All of this above supposedly happening between A.D. 1 to A.D. 1140.

The resurrection of 'Gog' are considered an evil manifestation of the power of Satan ('Magog'). The Ezekiel verses, Ezekiel 37:1-14, is the background imagery of the events surrounding Revelation 20:8. In the first resurrection, the end of the great tribulation which is A.D. 140, messiah Jesus rules for 1,000 years, literally or a thousand generations, with his Christian saints by initiating the rapture. In the year A.D. 1140, the jealousy and hate resurrects itself within the people who have never accepted the physical miracle or the supposed supernatural disturbance (rapture) which supposedly occurred within the material history or timeline on planet Earth in A.D. 140. In other words, John’s suggestion to his readers is that people who never believed will still be living after the A.D. 140 event in which messiah Jesus returns through "rapture". Let me explain John’s false predictions:

Before Jesus crucifixion until Jesus crucifixion ("armageddon") -Pre Tribulation years

*The meaning of "armageddon" as Jesus crucifixion is explained in another chapter.*

Before A.D. 70 - The tribulation years of the Church or congregation of the Messiah before the destruction and not desecration of the Temple in Jerusalem.

A.D. 70 - The physical destruction of the Temple at Jerusalem, the signal for the GREAT tribulation for the early Christian community. Paul expected only a desecration of the Temple while John later revised the "prophecy". Paul was executed before the Temple's destruction and the Gospel of Matthew keeped Paul's false prediction in Matthew chapter twenty-four.

A.D. 70 to A.D. 140 – The era of the GREAT tribulation, the Roman Empire is ruled by the spirit of Nero which could be Nero himself but my theory would suggest a combination of events. Nero is ruling or actually his successors carry on his policies and this is the spirit of Nero. Through historical records the deduction could be derived that Nero himself, the spirit of Nero and the successors who followed the same policy towards the Christian community could be properly labeled as "666". The previous example could be validated because the Roman emperor Vespasian destroyed the Temple two years after Nero's death. Later evidence will be shown to connect "666" with the Roman leadership and its idols at the marketplace.

A.D. 140 - The 1st physical resurrection takes place or rapture of the congregation of the Messiah. This is the difference between Paul’s Dispensationalism and John’s Millennialism because Paul expected or falsely predicted the desecration of the Temple while John is describing the destruction of the Temple (The Gospel of John 2:19-21 and Revelation 6:13-14, 8:10-13, 12:2, 13:5).

A.D. 140 to A.D. 1140 - Messiah Jesus and his congregation rules the Earth with an iron fist or strength for a thousand years (Revelation 2:27, Revelation 19:15-16 and Revelation 20:6) through Jerusalem.

A.D. 1140 - The resurrection of an evil spirit and enmity creates the spiritual forces of 'Gog and Magog' then is physically manifested with actual people rebelling against the rule of Messiah Jesus (Revelation 20:7-8).

Post A.D. 1140 - The battles for Earth commences and then after the second victory, the second resurrection is commanded to occur. The second resurrection separates the nominal Christians from the faithful Christians. The first victory occurred at A.D. 140 where the leaders of the earth were humiliated and proven incorrect by Messiah Jesus through the event of rapture. The second victory is detailed as the final result of the unraveling of material history warped by apocalyptic events (Revelation 20:9-15).

The reason why John describes the Temple as Jesus himself (Revelation 21:22) is because the role of the Temple has expired (Revelation 21:3). The role of 'Gog and Magog' is repeated like the events of Zerubbabel in his difficulties to rebuild the Second Temple. The first 'Gog and Magog' of Ezekiel are the spiritual forces whom are obstructionistic in the construction of the second Temple under Zerubbabel (Ezekiel chapter thirty-eight, Ezekiel Chapter thirty-nine, Obadiah 1:20, All of the Book of Haggai, Zechariah chapter three, Zechariah 4:9, Ezra 6:14, Nehemiah 1:7, Nehemiah chapter four, Nehemiah 5:1-13, Nehemiah 6:1-15). The passages of Nehemiah are the main evidence for the first 'Gog and Magog' to have physically existed in spiritual form. The other verses which are not in the Book of Nehemiah, and are rather prophetic, and are spiritual manifestations of the Nehemiah passages. In other words, the Nehemiah passages are more historical records and literal in description. Therefore, there are two eras in which 'Gog and Magog' were to occur if we accept the words of John to be from a divine source. So, accordingly, the second 'Gog and Magog' are several generations after those who have seen the return of Messiah Jesus. In other words, the second 'Gog and Magog' are those generations of human beings who still do not believe and lived under the thousand years reign and rule of Messiah Jesus and his Christian saints. Now, the 'Gog' are accompanied by nominal Christians (Revelation 2:22, Revelation 2:26, Revelation 21:7-8). The meaning of "false prophet" in Revelation 20:10 is a leader among the nominal Christians and is the successor of Korah and represented as the spirit of Korah who rebelled against Moses stated in the Book of Numbers (Numbers chapter sixteen). As noted, the first  manifestation of the bottomless pit (Numbers 16:32) and concluding with the second and final bottomless pit (Revelation 20:10-15). The second and final bottomless pit is destroyed by the all-consuming Lake of Fire according to John in the Book of Revelation (Revelation 20:14).

Therefore, "Magog" being a single entity is Satan himself according to the writings attributed to Ezekiel and Zechariah. Ezekiel 39:6 is separating "Magog" from the group body or plural entities of "Gog". Therefore, the Ezekiel passage is a symbolic composition describing the events surrounding the opposition to rebuild the Temple under Zerubbabel's leadership. The physical evidence of this rebellion or opposition is described in the book of Zechariah. Zechariah chapters three and four is in reference to the writings and symbolic events of Ezekiel 39:6. In other words; the mention of ‘Gog and Magog’ is describing the rebuilding of the Second Temple after Babylonian captivity, which already occurred, and not detailing a future event.

The role and explanation of what is and who are 'Gog and Magog' has been presented. The eras were presented and explained but a critical problem has presented itself. How could this be true if the events of A.D. 140 never occurred? The complete physical manifestations concerning the Book of Revelation was supposedly concluded at A.D. 1140.

Therefore, there are two opposing versions: Preterist view and Millennialist view.

Would this model be true: Thesis --> <-- Anti Thesis = Synthesis? Is there a mixture of the Preterist view and Millennialist view?

If you totally deny my evidence and therefore embrace the Millennialist or futurist view then the problem derives from the rejection of the evidence. Millennialism or futurism and even historicism would be going against the literal or actual meaning and intent of the Book of Revelation.

If you embrace the Preterist view which means that the prophecies were fulfilled around A.D. 70 therefore the Book of Revelation were "fulfilled" with exception to the last four or three chapters. The previous perception is surely true according to my research. However, the conclusion is the Book of Revelation is not a supernatural book but rather a natural treatise employing borrowed language from previous Old Testament sources. The Full-Preterist view and the Amillennial view would be addressed later. The views described would be shown to also be insufficient when challenged with various proofs showing the Book of Revelation to be a total or complete natural treatise.

However, the “full manifestations” of the Book of Revelation were fulfilled and completed at A.D. 1140. Historically, the message was completed when Constantine co-authored legislation called: The Edict of Milan in A.D. 313, which ended the persecution of Christians within the Roman Empire. The previous will also be elaborated in a later chapter.

Therefore, if this is true then what we are left with is only the message concerning the Book of Revelation. The remainder is the spiritual meaning of the Book of Revelation and all of the New Testament canon. The deviant ‘Gnostics’would be correct if the predictions and “prophecies” within the New Testament are proven to be false. In other words, the remainder would be the new description – “Full-Amillennialism” of the past ‘Gnostics’.


A. The evidence above refutes some of the commentary by St. Augustine of Hippo eventhough he properly described the identity of who and what is 'Gog and Magog'.

B. The Millennialist ,and even parts of the Preterist view, has been discredited. If the destruction of the Temple is taken into account then the idea of a seventy years cycle is calculated because it was intended to be a copy of the previous Babylonian destruction of the first Temple. Therefore, something had to happen at A.D. 140 and the only expected event would fit the space in the timeline would be the rapture and appearance of Messiah Jesus initiating the thousand years reign. Furthermore, John's message within the Book of Revelation was to introduce a timeline of events which was meant to be literal. Therefore, the symbolic language employed by John was to code his message because of the possible confiscation of his letters by his Roman captors. Hence, the reason of omitting direct references to "Rome" or "Romans" or “Nero” throughout his treatise to the seven churches.

C. The only other texts outside of the Christian and Jewish texts which describe 'Gog and Magog' are the Islamic texts. The Islamic texts are also proven in error or wrong unless, of course, a new interpretation through the ijtehad process is developed and presented. The Quran details of a past event (Qu'ran 18:94) but even its verses (Qu'ran 18:86-99) are not in accordance with the earlier presentation stated in Biblical sources. Therefore, the Qu'ran details a future event and makes the error of stating that these are actual tribes. Then it made a false conclusion and a false assertion that these tribes are now in existence (Qu'ran 18:99). Unless of course, the 'Gog and Magog' in the Qu'ran are not the same entity which are described in the Bible. Through the known Islamic texts and polemics we find numerous errors even by interpreters of Islamic texts. As explained, the proper meaning is that 'Gog' is a group of people and the 'Magog' is the spiritual manifestation of Satan (Zechariah 3:1) which occurred during the construction of the second Temple under the leadership of Zerubbabel.

D. There are two manifestations of 'Gog and Magog'. There are also two Temples and one symbolic Temple associated with these two types of manifestations. The 1st 'Gog and Magog' is associated with building of the second Temple and surrounds the events of Zerubbabel's struggle to rebuild the Temple. The 2nd 'Gog and Magog', according to John’s interpretation, is associated with the struggle of people to accept the rule of Jesus and his Christian saints during the conclusion of the thousand years span. The people are exhorted to fight against the millennial system of Jesus. The people who never accepted Jesus as the Messiah and the spirit of Satan is what composes the entity of 'Gog and Magog' stated in the Book of Revelation.

E. Therefore; Jewish, Christian and Islamic sources of moral codes, has exhibited through erros, are still sources of beneficence and non-maleficience. Therefore, the previous theory is stating our moral codes are derived from natural observations. The reason for the previous is based on the formula of modern philosophers like W.D. Ross and others. Many modern philosophers and historical scholars, through anthropology, show that the morals derived from the said religions existed previously. In other words, the sources of the moral codes are proven to be derived from ancient belief systems which composed moral laws before the said religions. The previous example will be discussed in another chapter. Furthermore, these observations are the source of our current natural rights and human rights. However, these sources may have derived their“beneficience” from a natural source like natural evolution. For instance, the naturalist theory which observes the Book of Ecclesiastes (or Kohelet in Hebrew) to be relevant compared to the “prophecies” or predictions by John, the writer of the Book of Revelation. For example, the book attributed to Solomon, does contain wisdom against various forms of the "beast" (leaders, business leaders and others of social responsibility) and to avoid becoming a spiritual "beast". For instance, Paul even uses the term "beast" to describe those at the church of Ephesus (1st Corinthians 15:32). The previous proofs are the moral lessons within these so-called “religious”sources which surpasses the Book of Revelation. Furthermore, it would be acceptable to accept the idea that messiah Jesus was human and not divine. It would be proven, in another chapter, the moral codes from these “religious” sources derive from natural evolution. In other words; through trial and error, in the human evolutionary chain of events based on the cycle of material history or social evolution.

F. The mention of "Magog" in the Book of Genesis (Genesis 10:2-5) is partly relevant to both Ezekiel's and Revelation's usage of the term "Magog". Both Ezekiel's and Revelation's use of the term is symbolic rather than a literal description of a tribe or a group of tribes. The previous mentioned supposition is known through the rest of the verses because of the use of the term "Gentiles" is also shown as a return to the symbolic designation of the lands (Revelation 20:8). Therefore, "Gog" are several generations of Gentiles who never accepted the message of Jesus despite being ruled for a thousand years under the government of Jesus. The previous statement is an assumption of the mind of the writer of the Book of Revelation. The said statement is actually a dangerous proposal which could lead to generalizations and prejudices by those not knowing that all of the said predictions located in the Book of Revelation were "fulfilled". Revelation 20:8-" ...the NATIONS which are in the four quarters(or corners) of the earth,…”. The NATIONS are transformed into "Gog" when the spirit of "Magog" rallies them to the fight after the thousand years rule of Jesus. Simply, the use of the term "Magog" evolved into a spiritual designation. The spiritual designation was proven through Ezekiel's use of the term. Furthermore, the use by the Book of Revelation was to present a spiritual transformation of physical lands and people when they accept the call of "Magog"(Satan) changing them into "Gog" (The rebellious people after the 1,000 year reign). The failed prediction by the writer of the Book of Revelation may lead to dangerous generalizations and lead to other modern absurd theories. These dangerous generalizations will be addressed in chapter thirteen of this book – Book of Revolution.

G. There is also a confusion concerning prophecies derived from the Book of Ezekiel. The verses stated in the Book of Ezekiel are describing Zerubbabel, the leader in the construction of the Second Temple after Babylonian captivity. The evidence to describe Zerubbabel is Isaiah 52:9-11 and Zechariah 13:7-9 (because these two passages are associated with Ezekiel chapter thirty-seven). The supporting evidence is located in Ezekiel 39:23 and Ezekiel 45:15-19 which are clearly showing ceremonial procedures something which does not agree with both Paul’s Dispensationalism and John’s Millennialism. Furthermore, in the New Testament Canon within the four documents (Colossians 1:25-27, Ephesians 1:10, Ephesians 1:17, Ephesians 3:2, 1st Corinthians 9:17, Hebrews 9:9-15, and Hebrews 9:24) the temple ceremonies are stated to be no longer relevant. The writer of the Book of Revelation, John, states in Revelation 21:3 and Revelation 21:22 that Jesus is the new tabernacle/temple on earth and the new temple in heaven. The reason is the importance of the phrase - "time is short" statements by Paul (1st Corinthians 7:29) and John (Revelation 1:3, Revelation 3:10, Revelation 6:11, and Revelation 22:6). The previous statements are an example of Paul’s Dispensationalism. With all the evidence the only conclusion is that the Ezekiel passages were meant for Zerubbabel and for those who are associated with the construction of the Second Temple (Zechariah 2:8, Haggai 1:23) because these previous individuals, Zerubabbel and others, continued with the Temple ceremonies.



Chapter 11 - The Sabbath "Hour" of Revelation: The A.D. 70 Apocalypse

Chapter 11 - The Sabbath "Hour" of Revelation: The A.D. 70 Apocalypse



Revelation 21:22 states: " And I saw no temple therein: for the Lord God Almighty and the Lamb are the temple of it".



Where did the author get this idea or event? Flavius Josephus, famous for hearsay reports, stated that an event occurred in Jerusalem four years before its destruction in his famous treatise. Also, within the proximity of this same report exists another borrowing from history - the star or comet of "wormwood". In other words, the writer of the Book of Revelation borrowed an event from the past and integrated this past event with Jeremiah's Lamentation of Jerusalem (The Book of Lamentations 3:15-19). The previous statement derives from the Old Testament and now the historical "hearsay" evidence from Josephus:



"Thus were the miserable people persuaded by these deceivers, and such as belied God himself; while they did not attend nor give credit to the signs that were so evident, and did so plainly foretell their future desolation, but, like men infatuated, without either eyes to see or minds to consider, did not regard the denunciations that God made to them. Thus there was a star(20)resembling a sword, which stood over the city, and a comet, that continued a whole year. Thus also before the Jews' rebellion, and before those commotions which preceded the war, when the people were come in great crowds to the feast of unleavened bread, on the eighth day of the month Xanthicus, (21)[Nisan,] and at the ninth hour of the night, so great a light shone round the altar and the holy house, that it appeared to be bright day time; which lasted for half an hour. This light seemed to be a good sign to the unskillful, but was so interpreted by the sacred scribes, as to portend those events that followed immediately upon it. At the same festival also, a heifer, as she was led by the high priest to be sacrificed, brought forth a lamb in the midst of the temple. Moreover, the eastern gate of the inner (22)[court of the] temple, which was of brass, and vastly heavy, and had been with difficulty shut by twenty men, and rested upon a basis armed with iron, and had bolts fastened very deep into the firm floor, which was there made of one entire stone, was seen to be opened of its own accord about the sixth hour of the night. "(Source: The Wars of the Jews or The history of the Destruction of Jerusalem, Book 6, Chapter 5, points 2 and 3).



The last term underlined and bolded is "sixth hour". This is evidence that the author has a pattern of borrowing from past events. It is also a strong possibility that most terms, in the Book of Revelation, could be derived from and classified as "hearsay". Nevertheless, the "omen" concerning the star or comet report could be true because it could be reported and seen by many throughout the region (The Gospel of Matthew 4:24). However, the report concerning the "lamb" is hearsay while the last report concerning the "sixth hour" event is doubtful. The last report is the subject that will be investigated in this chapter.



The "hour" term is mentioned seven times within the Book of Revelation. These hours are like days to the preparation of the observation of Sabbath. Let us go through my investigation of this term and how it relates to the mind of the writer:



(1) Revelation 3:3 = Sunday, the supposed resurrection day of the "messiah" Jesus of Nazareth. It is the beginning of the preparation before the Sabbath sundown. In other words, it is also the sixth hour before sundown on Friday. It is also a sign of the "rapture" of the 'Body of Christ'. The writer symbolized himself as representing all believing Christians entering 'heaven' in Revelation 4:1. The seventh hour before the Sabbath sundown on Friday.


(2) Revelation 8:1 = Monday, this symbolically represents the destruction of the Temple by the Romans signaling the beginning of the seven decades captivity and the beginning of the 'Great Tribulation' in Revelation 6:13 and Revelation 8:10-11. This is also the sixth hour before the Sabbath sundown on Friday.


(3) Revelation 9:15 = Tuesday, this is a representation of the Romans killing the inhabitants of Jerusalem during the great siege. A symbolic illustration already repeated in the Book of Ezekiel chapter nine. In fact, it is a review and a parallel of Ezekiel chapter nine which is evidence of borrowing. The invisible mark of "666" or the mark of Nero is on his sheep while another mark is on the believing Christians (Zechariah 11:17, Zechariah 14:2, Ephesians 6:11-14, Revelation 9:4, Revelation 16:2). In other words, the writer is describing a contrast between two spiritual shepherds: Nero and Jesus of Nazareth. This is also the fifth hour before the Sabbath sundown on Friday.


(4) Revelation 11:13 = Wednesday, this is an illustration of the day when Jesus of Nazareth was crucified or put on a wooden pole (Galatians 2:13). In other words, the writer again is presenting a past event in Matthew 27:51-54. Revelation chapter eleven is also detailing the efforts of two groups within the overall composition of the 'Body of Christ'(Christian community): believing Christians who are Jewish-Christians and Gentile Christians. These are the "two prophets" mentioned in Revelation 11:10. Please, read over my chapter on this subject of who are the two prophets of Revelation chapter eleven. This is also the fourth hour before the Sabbath sundown on Friday.


(5) Revelation 14:7 = Thursday, this is a symbolically referenced to the unity of the 'Body of Christ'(Ephesians 4:8-12, Romans 16:16). Paul's Dispensationalism is noted but presents the very reason that John' Millennialism is an off-shot from Paul's theory and John simply continues where Paul left off. Revelation chapter fourteen is the total composition of the Christian community during their struggle with Roman authorities. It is a sequel to Revelation chapter seven where only the Jewish-Christians were described as the ones at the core of the leadership because of the tribal identification within this particular chapter. The role of the Gentile Christians start at Revelation 7:9 but mentions James indirectly in Revelation 7:13. This is noted in Galatians 1:19, Galatians chapter two, and Acts 21:18-25. This is also the third hour before the Sabbath sundown on Friday.


(6) Revelation 17:12 = Friday, this is the exposure of the enemy of the Christian community and clash of cultural laws. The enemy is the Roman empire with their Ten Legislators (Twelve Tables) in comparison to the new Ten Commandments (Revelation 14:12). The Twelve Tables of the Decemvirs were composed of Ten Men who were elected every two years. They were elected every two years to put into legislation new laws or codes. The reason why it is a strong reference to a cultural clash is because the Roman secular law(ius civile) replaced an earlier religiously based laws called the ius divinum. Therefore, what is stated throughout Revelation chapter seventeen is a clash of philosophies: Classical conservatism versus Classical liberalism.

One is tied to one leadership structure(messiah Jesus) and the other to a pluralistic form of leadership (Ten Roman legislators). The writer of the Book of Revelation is stating in Revelation chapter seventeen that the Roman Empire destroyed Jerusalem and its Temple in A.D. 70. This evidence also refutes St.Augustine's absurd references to the Book of Daniel. This also clarifies another point which will be explained concerning the Antiochus Epiphanes chapter: the point is that the Temple is no longer standing (A.D. 70) versus a Temple that is standing (Daniel's verses and Paul's Dispensationalism). This is the second hour before the Sabbath sundown on Friday.



(7) Revelation 18:10 = Sabbath sundown on Friday the hour before the preparation. A victor is declared in this clash of civilizations and philosophies. The hand of God acted without the help and intervention of individuals (Revelation 18:21). This is a repeat of the previous captivity in which it concluded in the act of the Persian king allowing the rebuilding of the Temple (Isaiah 45:1, Daniel 2:34). The Daniel verses were written after the facts and therefore what is written in the Book of Daniel has nothing to do with the Book of Revelation. Revelation chapter eighteen is when the past events and supposed future events, which are false predictions, splits into two. The Edict of Milan, which is an empirical event and considered main evidence, refutes the previous theme. In other words, the Edict of Milan stopped the persecution of the Christian community and it was not the hand of God knowing Jesus did not return.



Sabbath sundown observation: Nehemiah 13:19 and 2nd Chronicles 36:22. The next evidence is stated in the Book of Judith which is located in the Catholic collection:

"She fasted during that entire period except when fasting was forbidden: the day before the Sabbath and the sabbath itself..." (Judith 8:6).



The passage in the Book of Nehemiah is more explicit in stating the importance of observing the Sabbath. In comparison to what is stated in the Book of Revelation, the writer is using Jewish observances to highlight his hope of a victory over the Roman Empire. This prediction is partly true based on the fact that the Roman empire is no longer in existence especially its Ten legislators which were hinted in Revelation 13:1 and17:12 with its famous seven hills/mountains (Revelation 17:9).



The writer of the Book of Revelation has presented a natural prediction by using events which already occurred during his time and era. After Revelation chapter nineteen, the writer proposes a prediction which has been proven false by four verses or primers:


(1) Revelation 20:6 (Matthew 27:51-54)


(2) Revelation 20:8 (Ezekiel chapter thirty-eight which was already proven as a past event detailing the struggle to rebuild the second Temple)


(3) Revelation 21:2 (2nd Esdras 13:36, the Book is located in the Catholic canon and hinted several times in the Book of Hebrews).


(4) Revelation 21:22 (The Wars of the Jews or The history of the Destruction of Jerusalem, Book 6, Chapter 5, points 2 and 3)

The book of Acts also explains an important connection to the Temple - Acts 3:1 - as it connects Jesus as the Temple (Revelation 21:22).


Saturday, October 30, 2010

Chapter 9. - The One and Ten Horns: correcting St. Augustine of Hippo

Chapter 9. - The One and Ten Horns: correcting St. Augustine of Hippo

The TEN Horns mentioned by John in Revelation 17:7, 17:12 and 17:16 is an attack on the Laws of Rome known through the TWELVE tablets directed by a set of TEN men throughout roman history. The mention of the "TEN horns" within the Book of Revelation was to present the triumph of the Law of God (The Songs of Moses and Jesus - Revelation 15:3) over the twelve "secular" tablets of Roman law. John, the writer of the Book of Revelation, used the term "Ten Horns" from the Book of Daniel to describe Roman law as an antagonist towards his perception of what is the "divine" rule of law.

Who or what are the TEN horns described by John? It is true that in the Book of Daniel it mentions TEN horns (Daniel Chapter seven). More specifically, Daniel 7:24 parallels with Revelation 17:12. The reason to point this out is to evaluate the mind of John, the writer of the Book of Revelation, to connect his current circumstances of history to the Book of Daniel. Why? Augustine of Hippo, several years later during the invasion of Rome in 410 A.D. by Alaric who led the Huns, executes the same mental judgment to his historical circumstances and tries to connect the misfortune of his Christian community with the writings of both Daniel and John. Before the evidence is presented highlighting Augustine’s misinterpretation of a false prediction the subject of the ‘One and Ten horns’ must be explained. The ‘Ten Horns’ have no relation to a future setting but actually describes a theme or subject during the era of the writer. John was writing and attacking symbolically the Roman system using Daniel’s allegory. John was specifically addressing the TEN men in the Roman government.

First, who or what are the TEN men of the twelve roman tablets or tables? It is a group of ten legislators to enact legislation of Roman law over the years to direct Roman society and impose Roman culture in society. The imposition of Roman law affected the lives of the early Christian community. In other words, these ten men are symbolically opposers to the twelve elders mentioned in the Book of Revelation. This imposition also threatened Jewish culture and this threat was sensed years earlier in the encroachment of Hellenistic culture. The historical evidence is the struggle of the Maccabees to defeat the encroaching Greek culture imported by puppet Jewish kings or leaders. The evidence is stated by Will Durant in his book Caesar and Christ:

"The next step in the climb of the plebs was a demand for definite, written, and secular laws. Heretofore the patrician priests had been the recorders and interpreters of the statutes, had kept their records secret, and had used their monopoly, and the ritual requirements of the law, as weapons against social change. After a long resistance to the new demands, the Senate (454) sent a commission of three patricians to Greece to study and report on the legislation of Solon and other lawmakers. When they returned, the Assembly chose ten men - decemviri - to formulate a new code, and gave them supreme governmental power in Rome for two years. This commission, under the presidency of a resolute reactionary, Appius Claudius, transformed the old customary law of Rome into the famous Twelve Tables, submitted them to the Assembly (which passed them with some changes), and displayed them in the Forum for all who would - and could - to read. This seemingly trivial event was epochal in Roman history and in the history of mankind; it was the first written form of that legal structure which was to be Rome's most signal achievement and her greatest contribution to civilization"(page 23).

"Within this unique constitution the magistrates administered a system of law based upon the Twelve Tables of the Decemvirs. Before that epochal enactment Roman law had been a mixture of tribal customs, royal edicts, and priestly commands. Mos Maiorum - the way of the ancients - remained to the end of pagan Rome the examplar of morals and a source of law; and through imagination and edification idealized the ruthless burghers of the early Republic, the tales told of them helped educators to form a stoic character in Roman youth. For the rest, early Roman law was a priestly rule, a branch of religion, surrounded with sacred sanctions and solemn rites"(page 31).

"The Twelve Tables affected a double juristic revolution: the publication and secularization of Roman law"(page 31).

"The ius civile, or law of citizens, freed itself in these Tables from the ius divinum, or divine law; Rome decided not to be a theocracy"(page 32).

The above evidence is an example of a cultural clash or cultural war between Gentiles and Jews over the years. The words written by John in the Book of Revelation was an expression of this ongoing cultural war in which the nascent Christians entered as a factor when they replaced the Jewish people as God's chosen people.

The subject of "God's chosen people" was brought up by several early church leaders one or two generations later:

Chapter LXXXII.—The prophetical gifts of the Jews were transferred to the Christians.

“For the prophetical gifts remain with us, even to the present time. And hence you ought to understand that [the gifts] formerly among your nation have been transferred to us. And just as there were false prophets contemporaneous with your holy prophets, so are there now many false teachers amongst us, of whom our Lord forewarned us to beware; so that in no respect are we deficient, since we know that He foreknew all that would happen to us after His resurrection from the dead and ascension to heaven. For He said we would be put to death, and hated for His name’s sake; and that many false prophets and false Christs would appear in His name, and deceive many: and so has it come about. For many have taught godless, blasphemous, and unholy doctrines, forging them in His name; have taught, too, and even yet are teaching, those things which proceed from the unclean spirit of the devil, and which were put into their hearts. Therefore we are most anxious that you be persuaded not to be misled by such persons, since we know that everyone who can speak the truth, and yet speaks it not, shall be judged by God, as God testified by Ezekiel, when He said, ‘I have made thee a watchman to the house of Judah. If the sinner sin, and thou warn him not, he himself shall die in his sin; but his blood will I require at thine hand. But if thou warn him, thou shalt be innocent.’ And on this account we are, through fear, very earnest in desiring to converse [with men] according to the Scriptures, but not from love of money, or of glory, or of pleasure. For no man can convict us of any of these [vices]. No more do we wish to live like the rulers of your people, whom God reproaches when He says, ‘Your rulers are companions of thieves, lovers of bribes, followers of the rewards.’ Now, if you know certain amongst us to be of this sort, do not for their sakes blaspheme the Scriptures and Christ, and do not assiduously strive to give falsified interpretations.

(Source: Dialogue with Trypho)

Chapter X.—Beware of Judaizing.

Let us not, therefore, be insensible to His kindness. For were He to reward us according to our works, we should cease to be. Therefore, having become His disciples, let us learn to live according to the principles of Christianity. Literally, “according to Christianity.” For whosoever is called by any other name besides this, is not of God. Lay aside, therefore, the evil, the old, the sour leaven, and be ye changed into the new leaven, which is Jesus Christ. Be ye salted in Him, lest any one among you should be corrupted, since by your savour ye shall be convicted. It is absurd to profess Some read, “to name.” Christ Jesus, and to Judaize. For Christianity did not embrace literally, “believe into,” merge into. Judaism, but Judaism Christianity, that so every tongue which believeth might be gathered together to God.
Let us not, therefore, be insensible to His kindness. For were He to reward us according to our works, we should cease to be. For “if Thou, Lord, shalt mark iniquities, O Lord, who shall stand?” Let us therefore prove ourselves worthy of that name which we have received. For whosoever is called by any other name besides this, he is not of God; for he has not received the prophecy which speaks thus concerning us: “The people shall be called by a new name, which the Lord shall name them, and shall be a holy people.” This was first fulfilled in Syria; for “the disciples were called Christians at Antioch," when Paul and Peter were laying the foundations of the Church. Lay aside, therefore, the evil, the old, the corrupt leaven, and be ye changed into the new leaven of grace. Abide in Christ, that the stranger or, “enemy.” may not have dominion over you. It is absurd to speak of Jesus Christ with the tongue, and to cherish in the mind a Judaism which has now come to an end. For where there is Christianity there cannot be Judaism. For Christ is one, in whom every nation that believes, and every tongue that confesses, is gathered unto God. And those that were of a stony heart have become the children of Abraham, the friend of God; Some read, “children of God, friends of Abraham.” and in his seed all those have been blessed who were ordained to eternal life in Christ.

(Source: Epistles to the Magnesians)

Daniel 7:7 is supposedly referenced to the TEN horns to describe the fourth beast expressed in the same verse. If we were to connect DANIEL 7:7, DANIEL 7:20, DANIEL 7:24, REVELATION 17:7, REVELATION 17:12 and REVELATION 17:16 then we could properly conclude, that these verses from these two books, describes the 4th Beast of Daniel. Then we could say that the 4th Beast is the Roman Empire! But is this really a closed case or the proper conclusion? REVELATION 17:10 and DANIEL 7:24 are not similar. The Revelation passage is a description of an internal matter and the passage from Daniel is a description of an external object. Obviously, the Revelation passage is a combination of describing literal number of rulers(or Roman emperors) and Roman Law("One mind" described in Revelation 17:13). Therefore, 4th Beast of Daniel is the Roman Empire according to John. The borrowing of symbols, by John, was to describe the Roman Empire. Then we could properly conclude that the verse from Revelation 17:10 is describing the fall of the Roman emperor Nero and not a future individual or leader. Therefore, properly identifying who is "666" in REVELATION 13:18 being the Roman emperor Nero himself. The subject concerning the identification of the mind as a separate object is well-known in Jewish law. For example, the stealing of the mind or ideas was known as "g'neivat da'at ".

The writer of the Book of Revelation, John, simply used the language from the Book of Daniel and incorporated Daniel's motif into his obvious political treatise in describing the eventual fall of the Roman Empire (Revelation 17:16).

In other words, John used a "prophecy" from the Book of Daniel and imposed it to describe the Roman Empire. The fourth beast described by Daniel is not the Roman Empire but rather Alexander of Macedonia who defeated 3 kings previously during his era. Remember, Daniel's reference to the Ten Horns is an external description and John's usage is for the internal workings of an empire or state.

Then we have the statement of St. Augustine himself presenting the misinterpretation of what is stated by John and Daniel:

" I confess, indeed, that I fear we may be mistaken in respect of the ten kings whom Antichrist, as it seems, is to find, who are ostensibly ten men; I am afraid, that is, that Antichrist may come unexpectedly, seeing that there are not as many kings as that in existence in the Roman world. But it may be suggested that the number ten signifies the total number of kings after whom he is to come, in the same way as totality is frequently signified by a thousand, or a hundred, or seven, or by several other numbers - there is no need to give a list of them here. "

(City of God, Book XX, ch. 23, pg. 946)

The above evidence is clearly presenting to us how John's Millennialism has been warped and incorrectly reinterpreted over the years. The further away the date, A.D. 70 drifts, the more irrational the theories become.

The next evidence below is an example of how the theory has changed. The evidence below is from one or two generations away from the crucial date of A.D. 70:

Chapter XXVI.—John and Daniel have predicted the dissolution and desolation of the Roman Empire, which shall precede the end of the world and the eternal kingdom of Christ. The Gnostics are refuted, those tools of Satan, who invent another Father different from the Creator.

1. In a still clearer light has John, in the Apocalypse, indicated to the Lord’s disciples what shall happen in the last times, and concerning the ten kings who shall then arise, among whom the empire which now rules [the earth] shall be partitioned. He teaches us what the ten horns shall be which were seen by Daniel, telling us that thus it had been said to him: “And the ten horns which thou sawest are ten kings, who have received no kingdom as yet, but shall receive power as if kings one hour with the beast. These have one mind, and give their strength and power to the beast. These shall make war with the Lamb, and the Lamb shall overcome them, because He is the Lord of lords and the King of kings.” It is manifest, therefore, that of these [potentates], he who is to come shall slay three, and subject the remainder to his power, and that he shall be himself the eighth among them. And they shall lay Babylon waste, and burn her with fire, and shall give their kingdom to the beast, and put the Church to flight. After that they shall be destroyed by the coming of our Lord. For that the kingdom must be divided, and thus come to ruin, the Lord [declares when He] says: “Every kingdom divided against itself is brought to desolation, and every city or house divided against itself shall not stand.” It must be, therefore, that the kingdom, the city, and the house be divided into ten; and for this reason He has already foreshadowed the partition and division [which shall take place]. Daniel also says particularly, that the end of the fourth kingdom consists in the toes of the image seen by Nebuchadnezzar, upon which came the stone cut out without hands; and as he does himself say: “The feet were indeed the one part iron, the other part clay, until the stone was cut out without hands, and struck the image upon the iron and clay feet, and dashed them into pieces, even to the end.” Then afterwards, when interpreting this, he says: “And as thou sawest the feet and the toes, partly indeed of clay, and partly of iron, the kingdom shall be divided, and there shall be in it a root of iron, as thou sawest iron mixed with baked clay. And the toes were indeed the one part iron, but the other part clay.” The ten toes, therefore, are these ten kings, among whom the kingdom shall be partitioned, of whom some indeed shall be strong and active, or energetic; others, again, shall be sluggish and useless, and shall not agree; as also Daniel says: “Some part of the kingdom shall be strong, and part shall be broken from it. As thou sawest the iron mixed with the baked clay, there shall be minglings among the human race, but no cohesion one with the other, just as iron cannot be welded on to pottery ware.” And since an end shall take place, he says: “And in the days of these kings shall the God of heaven raise up a kingdom which shall never decay, and His kingdom shall not be left to another people. It shall break in pieces and shatter all kingdoms, and shall itself be exalted forever. As thou sawest that the stone was cut without hands from the mountain, and brake in pieces the baked clay, the iron, the brass, the silver, and the gold, God has pointed out to the king what shall come to pass after these things; and the dream is true, and the interpretation trustworthy.”

(Source: Iranaeus against Heresies, Book V, Chapter XXVI)

The main proof underlined above derives from Paul's Dispensationalist error. The evidence is from Mark 13:14 which is missing the term "sabbath" from a previous Gospel of Matthew 24:20. The author, Iranaeus, interpolated three sources together to form this opinion:

"And they shall lay Babylon waste, and burn her with fire, and shall give their kingdom to the beast, and put the Church to flight "

To "put the Church to flight" derives from Mark 13:14 which derives from Matthew 24:20. Hence, the missing term - "sabbath".

The first phrase "lay Babylon waste" derives from Revelation 17:16 which is traced back to 2nd Kings 9:36. If anyone were to read the whole chapter of 2nd Kings chapter nine it parallels with the Book of Revelation. The theory is proposed: the writer of Revelation expounded on his reading of 2nd Kings chapter nine to label it on the relationship between the Roman Empire and Jerusalem. This source of 2nd Kings chapter nine could also be partly the foundation for the term "armageddon" which is elaborated in another chapter. Furthermore, Iranaeus, interpolation is an attempt to hide the true facts concerning the previous failed predictions and false "prophecies" which are riddled through the New Testament canon.

Friday, October 29, 2010

Chapter 6 - The two witnesses of Revelation chapter eleven


Chapter 6 - The two witnesses of Revelation chapter eleven
The two witnesses of Revelation chapter eleven is also the most misunderstood section of John's manifesto against the Roman Empire. The first subject that must be explained is the wording of the verses within this chapter. They are like the canvas background to the chapter. The next issue is to explain the form of punishment being presented to the audience as an allegory to the relationship between the political centers of this story. The political cities being judged by John are the two cities of Rome and Jerusalem. Of course, accompanied in this allegorical story are the witnesses of the true believers composing of Jewish and Gentile believers in the divinity of Jesus Christ. The last segment is the story of the grafting of the Gentiles into the family of God. John, the writer of the Book of Revelation, at times borrows not only from the Old Testament but also writings and reports from his contemporaries of his time or era.


The Canvas of the Two Witnesses


The canvas for Revelation chapter eleven is broad and unique. The most interesting ingredient is the story of Jezebel (1st Kings 16:31 and 2nd Kings 9:22) is more relevant to the whole story concerning the Book of Revelation. Jezebel was mention by John at Revelation 2:20. Jezebel within the previous verse highlights the canvas of Revelation chapter eleven. It states everything: "Nevertheless, I have a complaint to make: you are encouraging the woman Jezebel who claims to be prophetess, and by her teaching she is luring my servants away to commit the adultery of eating food which has been sacrificed to idols."

My interpretation to the verse above is that the writer of the Book of Revelation, John, is under duress and may have coded this to mean the Roman government to include an actual person by that name that lived and participated at Thyatira. Some commentators of the Bible and the Book of Revelation have stated that Jezebel was a Nicolaitan. I disagree partly on this issue because the next verses, Revelation 2:21-24, would fit the description of a symbolic description of another entity. The entity is the Roman government of his day.

Revelation 11:3 mentions "sackcloth" and this is connected with the Jezebel/Elijah story of 2nd Kings 2:8-9. The previous example is a reminder of the clash between these two opposing individuals: Jezebel versus Elijah (1st Kings 18:13). John has a way of combining past Old Testament storylines to represent symbolic entities. Why? Because the story of the slaying of the prophets is repeated - Revelation 11:7 and 1st Kings 18:13. Now, accordingly we see the pairing of two: the Jewish-Christians are Elijah and the Gentile Christians are Elisha. Also, the Jewish-Christians are also represented as Joshua the High Priest and Gentile Christians as Zerubbabel. The reason for the symbolic representation is because of the mention of the Lampstands(or candlesticks) and the Olive Tree (Revelation 11:4 and the Book of Zechariah chapters three and four). The Lampstands are also mentioned previously to describe the mostly gentile church (Revelation 1:20). This is why they are mentioned twice in Revelation 11:4 because the congregation is comprised of both Jewish-Christians and Gentile Christians. The areas are Jerusalem and the lands outside of Jerusalem. Revelation 11:1-2 is a reference to the Ezekiel second Temple prophecies. However, only Ezekiel 4:13 mentions "gentiles" while Ezekiel chapter forty has no mention of "gentiles" but mentions an individual measuring the area. The Olive Tree is known to be the Jewish community as is stated in the pre-captivity passages (Jeremiah 11:16). In the book of Jeremiah, one of the books detailing the pre-captivity and post-captivity verses or passages, the Jewish community is known by two allegorical descriptions: Olive Tree (Jeremiah 11:16) and the basket of figs (Jeremiah chapter 24). The overall subject is the pattern of pairs of two. This type of pattern will be explained later in this chapter in the importance of having more than one witness. The verses Revelation 17:16 and 2nd Kings 9:36-37 are similar but most importantly it shows us the complexity of the writer's mind in taking a supposedly literal event from the past and changing it into a symbolic representation. Revelation 17:16 says: "… shall eat her flesh " and the events of the death of Jezebel stated in 2nd Kings are connected to convey a message concerning the death of Rome.

Ezekiel 23:36-37 explains the nature for the symbolic adultery. The mention of "gentiles" by John was to emphasize what Paul stated in Romans 11:23-25 explaining the joining of Gentile Christians with the Jewish Christians. Many commentators make the mistake of concluding this is the grafting of the general Jewish community with Christian Gentiles but this is not the case. Moreover, the symbolic adultery is now understood to be the relationship between Jerusalem and Rome. Those who are witnessing the "sin" are the "Body of Christ" (Ephesians 4:12) which is now to be understood to be the Jewish and Gentile believers of Jesus Christ's divinity. The proof of this conclusion is Revelation 11:5, Acts 2:3 & Acts 2:16-17 and Joel 2:28 which now has identified who are the witnesses of Revelation Chapter eleven. The witnesses of Revelation Chapter eleven are the Jewish Christians and Gentile Christians who have lived during the era of the Roman Empire.






The symbolic Punishment for Adultery and Fornication





The witnesses are now entering the courtroom and Judge John is presiding. According to the passages in the Old Testament it states: "stone her to death" (Deuteronomy 22:21,Leviticus 20:10). Ruth 4:9-11 shows the importance of witnesses and we have our witnesses composing of faithful Jewish Christians and faithful Gentile Christians(the term used - "faithful"- will be explained in another chapter).The words by Jesus noted in the Gospel of John (John 8:4-11) is a departure of the symbolic punishment given to Jerusalem and Rome (Revelation 18:21 and Revelation 19:2). The positive identification given in court that "Babylon" is an alias for Rome is noted by the words of Peter (1st Peter 5:13). The punishment was given out by an Angel and the Angel through the stone to punish the guilty party (Revelation 18:21) and this is now recorded in court. This was to avenge the martyrs (Revelation 18:20).

The verse in 2nd Chronicles 21:11 - "Moreover he made high places in the mountains of Judah, and caused the inhabitants of Jerusalem to commit fornication, and compelled Judah to do the same ". The punishment for this crime is light compared to what was given to Rome. The city of Jerusalem was given its punishment as four lashes (The four horsemen).

The four horsemen are the cycle of the relationship between Rome and Jerusalem. Why? The four horsemen was already explained and summarized in the Book of Jeremiah when describing the seven decades captivity. The previous seven decades captivity was between Jerusalem and Babylon. The four horsemen (Jeremiah 15:2) are symbolically represented as:

a. White Horse = captivity (Revelation 6:2)

b. Red Horse = war/sword (Revelation 6:4)

c. Black Horse = famine and starvation through economic exchanges (Revelation 6:5-6) * This would also explain Revelation 13:16-17 without explaining who is the "beast(s)" as this is explained in an earlier chapters of one and two of this book - Book of Revolution.

d. Pale Horse = death (Revelation 6:8)


All four existed when Babylon invaded Jerusalem as the relationship digressed into "death" (Jeremiah 15:2). John observed the relationship between Rome and Jerusalem as a repeat of the previous adulterous relationship. Both ventures would end up in the complete removal of the Temple. Revelation 6:8 was manifested in A.D.70.The intention of captivity happened earlier (2nd Kings 24:15) and was repeated in A.D.70 because of the adulterous relationship between Rome and Jerusalem. Therefore, the White Horse is represented as a false peace and the initial process for the start of captivity. One important factor that must be understood: If the Temple is not in existence the process could not be in play. Therefore, John expected something to occur seven decades after the Temple's destruction in A.D.70.Moreover, repeating the process years earlier according to the past relationship between Jerusalem and Babylon.

The previous act of fornication/adultery was performed previously and the guilty party has a history of this act (Jeremiah 23:10). Even though, the sin of fornication was cleansed through punishment (The captivity by Babylon) and redemption (Isaiah 52:1-6 and Isaiah 62:2, during the events of the building of the second temple in Jerusalem after the Babylonian captivity). The process of punishment of the lashes was performed in the previous fornication (captivity) with Babylon (Zechariah chapter six) and now the current fornication (destruction of the Temple and divorce from the general Jewish community in A.D. 70 by the Romans) which is explained and noted (Revelation 6:1-17). The reason why I have concluded the previous sentence with a profound conclusion is the repeated theme from Jeremiah concerning "figs" (Jeremiah chapter twenty-four) and this pattern is repeated in Revelation 6:13 - " And the stars of heaven fell unto the earth, even as a fig tree caste her untimely figs, when she is shaken of a mighty wind. " The term "earth" is the city of Jerusalem. This is also explained by Isaiah when he mentions "earth" (Isaiah 65:17-18). The mention of the four horsemen of the apocalypse was expressing the "Apocalypse" of the destruction of Jerusalem in A.D.70 and not a future event. The four horsemen also represents the digression of the relationship between God and the general Jewish community but ends in the redemption of the city by Jesus himself (Revelation 21:2-6 and Revelation 21:22). There is no future employment or usages for the "four horsemen" because there is no physical Jewish Temple in Jerusalem to initiate the process. Also, there are no sufficient and clear verses which predicted the rise of Islam in Arabia.




The Grafting of the Olive Tree




Romans 8:35 - " Who shall seperate us from the love of Christ? shall tribulation,or distress,or persecution,or famine,or nakedness,or peril,or sword? "




The Jewish Mishna explains the importance of witnesses during Rosh Hashanah. There is a possibility that the descriptions contained therein is a good indicator of Jewish observances used as a background to convey John's message:

(Mishna,treatise of Rosh Hashanah,tract 4, chapter 4):

4. Formerly evidence as to the appearance of the new moon was received the whole [of the thirtieth] day; but as it once happened that the witnesses delayed coming, which interrupted the Song of the Levites 3 [at the evening sacrifice], it was ordained that witnesses should be admitted till the time of Minchah only, and if any came after that time, that and the following day were kept as holy. After the destruction of the temple, Rabbon Jochanan, son of Zaccai ordained, "that evidence as to the appearance of the moon should be

received all day." R. Joshua, son of Korcha says, "This too did Rabban Jochanan, son of Zaccai ordain, viz. that wherever the chief of the tribunal might be, the witnesses need only go to the place of meeting [of the Sanhedrin 4]." ( pg.165 )

(Mishna,treatise of Rosh Hashanah,tract 8,chapter 1):

8. The following are considered incompetent witnesses: gamblers with dice, usurers, 14 pigeon breeders, 15 those who trade in the produce of the Sabbatical year, and also slaves. The rule is, that all evidence that cannot be received from a woman cannot be received from any of these.

(Mishna,treatise of Rosh Hashanah,tract 6,chapter 2):

6. In what manner was the examination of the witnesses conducted? The first pair were always examined first. The eldest of them being introduced first, the following questions were put to him: "Tell us in what form you saw the moon; was it with her horns turned towards the sun, or away from it? To the north or to the south [of the sun]? What was her elevation on the horizon? Towards which side was her inclination? What was the width of her disk?" If he said towards the sun, his evidence went for nothing. The second witness was then brought in, and examined; if the evidence was found to agree, their testimony was received as valid. The remaining pairs of witnesses were then superficially examined, not because there was any necessity for their evidence, but only not to disappoint them, 8 and also to encourage them to come another time.

(Mishna,treatise of Rosh Hashanah,tract 1,chapter 3):

1. If the Beth Din and all Israel saw the new moon, 1 or if the examination of the witnesses had already taken place, but it had become dark before the word "Mekoodash," 2 was pronounced, the month will be intercalary. When the Beth Din alone saw it, 3 two of its members must stand up before the others as witnesses, 4 who shall then say, "Mekoodash, Mekoodash." When only three forming a Beth Din have seen it, two of them must stand up as witnesses, and conjoin some of their learned associates with the single one, 5 and then give their evidence before these, who are to say, "Mekoodash, Mekoodash," because a single member of a Beth Din has not this faculty by himself alone.



The last tract of evidence from the Mishna explains to us why there are two pairs of Lampstands and Olive trees in Revelation 11:4 - "These are the two olive trees, and the two candlesticks standing before the God of the Earth". In other words, the nominal Christians are separated from the "faithful" or strong Christians. Only the strong Jewish Christians and strong Gentile Christians were able to stand up against the Roman system and witnessed the "fornication" and "adultery" between Rome and Jerusalem. The summary of this process is given in the Gospel of Matthew 13:24-30 when it is explaining the differentiation between wheat and tares. Ezekiel 37:22 is an example of the unification or grafting of the Gentiles and Jews under the Messiah called Jesus Christ. Even though the Ezekiel verse is appropriate for Second Temple prophecies which were fulfilled hundreds of years earlier. The Gospel of Matthew is more appropriate and even more relevant to the witnessing process. The wheat and tares are separated accordingly through a test by witnessing the "fornication" and "adultery" between Rome and Jerusalem (Revelation 11:3-5). I fully believe that John was demonstrating his Jewishness or knowledge of Jewish customs and simultaneously presenting the grafting of the Olive Trees (Jewish-Christians) and the Lampstands (Gentile Christians). The verse - Revelation 11:5 "..., fire proceed out of their mouth,..." is explained by the verse in Acts 2:3 "And there appeared unto them cloven tongues like as fire, and it sat upon each of them. " Therefore, the verse in Revelation is describing a segment of the early Christian community who stood up against the Roman authorities with non-violence and equipped only with their words.

The equipment of force for the early Christians was their own words (Revelation 11:6) as powerful as Christian-like Moses against the new Roman Pharaohs. The Roman Empire is equipped not only with swords but also with intellectual refuters both of which are like Korah from Moses era (Revelation 11:7 / Isaiah 5:13-14 & Numbers 16:31-32) which concluded in a Babylon-like Roman captivity for those who were not martyred by Roman swords. Surely, the result was the destruction of the Temple and city of Jerusalem in A.D. 70 by the Romans (Revelation 11:8) which was recorded by Flavius Josephus:



"1. THUS did the miseries of Jerusalem grow worse and worse every day, and the seditious were still more irritated by the calamities they were under, even while the famine preyed upon themselves, after it had preyed upon the people. And indeed the multitude of carcasses that lay in heaps one upon another was a horrible sight, and produced a pestilential stench, which was a hinderance to those that would make sallies out of the city, and fight the enemy: but as those were to go in battle-array, who had been already used to ten thousand murders, and must tread upon those dead bodies as they marched along, so were not they terrified, nor did they pity men as they marched over them; nor did they deem this affront offered to the deceased to be any ill omen to themselves; but as they had their right hands already polluted with the murders of their own countrymen, and in that condition ran out to fight with foreigners, they seem to me to have cast a reproach upon God himself, as if he were too slow in punishing them; for the war was not now gone on with as if they had any hope of victory; for they gloried after a brutish manner in that despair of deliverance they were already in. And now the Romans, although they were greatly distressed in getting together their materials, raised their banks in one and twenty days, after they had cut down all the trees that were in the country that adjoined to the city, and that for ninety furlongs round about, as I have already related. And truly the very view itself of the country was a melancholy thing; for those places which were before adorned with trees and pleasant gardens were now become a desolate country every way, and its trees were all cut down: nor could any foreigner that had formerly seen Judea and the most beautiful suburbs of the city, and now saw it as a desert, but lament and mourn sadly at so great a change: for the war had laid all the signs of beauty quite waste: nor if any one that had known the place before, had come on a sudden to it now, would he have known it again; but though he were at the city itself, yet would he have inquired for it notwithstanding. "

(SOURCE: The War of the Jews or the History of the destruction of Jerusalem, Book 6, Chapter 1,paragraph 1)


The previous evidence by Josephus is evidence which John described the carnage by adopting Jeremiah’s four horsemen. The topic returns to the two witnesses which are described in Revelation chapter eleven. Revelation 11:12 is a rapture event of the two camps of Jewish-Christians and Gentile Christians. The topic of the witnesses to include Gentile Christians was a revision to Matthew 10:5-15. The previous was supported by the Gospel of Mark (Mark 6:7-13).  The reason why Paul mentioned “dispensation” was to introduce a revision to the previous Matthew passages (Colossians 1:25-27). In other words, John was stating something which already occurred and repeating such events in allegorical form. These events repeated is the earthquake which occurred after Jesus' death was then borrowed by John to suggest the destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple by the Romans (Revelation 6:12-13).


Joshua 10:20 seems to be like Revelation 11:12 where the enemies where awed but in this case it is rather spiritual in nature and not a physical bodily resurrection. Also, 2nd Kings 2:11 states a physical taking of Elijah. If John, the writer of the Book of Revelation is stating an actual physical and bodily resurrection and physical rapture then we have no written historical account of this event ever taking place around 70 A.D. The enemies would have been in awe and spread the account of the events of a physical resurrection and then rapture something which occurred earlier in Matthew 27:52-53. Hence, the reason why Hosea 6:1-3 is stated is to show that a physical and bodily resurrection is not possible but rather a spiritual one. Later, I will present evidence that James' may have used this after Jesus' death on Sunday morning the supposed day of his resurrection. Paul addressed this problem in 2nd Timothy 2:8-18 where Hymenaeus and Philetus were observing Matthew 27:52-53 with Hosea 6:1-3. The subject of the two witnesses expanded the scope of Matthew 10:5-15 to include Gentile Christians.


The other evidence from the New Testament is the events surrounding the martyrdom and stoning of Stephen in the Book of Acts 7:54-60. In the previous passage, Stephen was delivered up by the violent actions of the enemies of the Gospel (message) of Jesus according to Paul. So, we now have conclusive proof that the two witnesses are a group of people despite the mention of "two prophets" in Revelation 11:10. The "two prophets" are the "two witnesses" according to the earlier evidence presented therefore both entities would represent the faithful "body of Christ" (Ephesians 2:15 and Ephesians 4:12). Therefore, the events stated in Revelation chapter eleven are evidently around A.D. 70. When the predictions did not occur according to what is stated in Matthew chapter twenty-four then many non-believers verbally attacked the Christian community and this forced John to produce the Epistles of John and the Gospel of John. Furthermore, when John was then arrested and exiles to the island of Patmos the Book of Revelation was composed as court document against the Roman Empire.



Romans 11:23-26 stated by Paul explains the grafting of the Gentiles to the Jewish group of Jesus followers. For Paul also states Romans 10:12 and this is confirmed by John when he states the "12,000" and "144,000" in Revelation chapters seven and fourteen. Paul emphasize the previous statements with Galatians 3:28 -

"There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither bond nor free, there is neither male nor female: for you are all one in Christ Jesus".


Revelation 15:3 also explains the grafting of the two groups: "And they sing the song of Moses the servant of God, and the song of the Lamb, saying, Great and marvelous are true are your ways, King of saints".

The grafting theme, the two witnesses, is not a unique idea among the New Testament writers. The idea of expanding citizenship to non-Romans was a practice among the Romans periodically and therefore it is theorized that the idea was adopted by Paul and later by John to incorporate gentiles into the fold of the Christian movement (Romans chapter eleven; and Revelation chapters seven, eleven and fourteen). The previous example was overall a dispute against Matthew 10:5-15 which only details the evangelization to the Jewish populace while neglecting the Gentile population. The Gospel of Mark, the third Gospel, speaks of the two witnesses in Mark 6:7-13 which was repeated by John in Revelation chapter eleven. The Gospel of John may have skipped the theme of the two witnesses but it was later adopted within the Book of Revelation. The Gospel of Luke, the next Gospel after Matthew, presents the term "Gospel" as representing Paul's revised or new doctrine (Luke 9:1-6 and Mark 1:27).