Tuesday, June 19, 2012

Chapter 16 - The Book of Hebrews: The Dispensationalist document

Chapter 16 - The Book of Hebrews: The Dispensationalist document

The Book of Hebrews was written by a young apprentice under the direction of Paul (Hebrews 2:3 and Hebrews 5:12). The Book of Hebrews is also a dispensationalist document which copied themes from the Gospel of Matthew and Paul's letters on the same subject. The Book of Hebrews is also known to be missing Paul's style of delivery. Paul's style is usually simple and not expressed in sophisticated language (1st Corinthians 1:17; and 2nd Corinthians 2:1, 11:6). The level of symbolic language and sophistication is the style of John. There are several clues which identify John as the writer and author of such a document or letter.
There are several terms which are used in identifying the writer of the Book of Revelation to also be the author of the Book of Hebrews. There is also evidence to suggest that the author of the Book of Hebrews was also adopting and following Paul's earlier dispensationalist theory or prediction. However; after the Temple's destruction, John, revised the predictions by Paul and Matthew which are dispensationalistic. The previous dispensationalistic views expressed the theory that the Temple in Jerusalem was to be desecrated or profaned by the Roman emperors. John also hinted a possible transition within the Book of Hebrews to a highly probable destruction of the Temple. The said transition is the first of the two. Furthermore, the definition of the term "dispensation" has been revised according to the facts. It is true that the term was used by Paul to convey a continuous interpretation of future events (Colossians 1:25 and Ephesians 3:2) but its usage is to suggest a false prediction. Paul used the previous term by incorporating the desecration of the Temple rather than its destruction. The Book of Hebrews, written by John, has coded several verses which portrays a transition from dispensationalism to millennialism.
One of the verses which contains this possible transition is also a positive identification of John being the author of the Book of Hebrews. The verses are, Hebrews 12:26-27, which is a highly probable alternative route in case the Temple is destroyed. The reason is because the Temple's destruction, later in the Book of Revelation, is symbolized with "earthquake of the Earth" or "earthquake" or another symbolic image (Revelation 6:13, 8:5, 8:10-11, 11:19, 15:8, 16:18-19, 21:3, 21:22, and Hebrews 12:26-27). The next evidence, the writer of the Book of Hebrews also employs the same term to describe the Roman empire - "beast" - which are both located in Hebrews 12:20 and several verses within the Book of Revelation(4:7, 11:7, 13:1, 15:2, 17:3, 19:20 and 20:4) and this transitional term was never used by Paul to describe the Roman Empire but rather individuals within the Christian community (1st Corinthians 15:32). The term "beast" is used in both books in the similar Koine Greek form which translates accurately to "wild beast". The next evidence is the term - "minds" - which is also used in both documents: Hebrews 8:10, 10:16, 12:3; Revelation 17:9 and 17:13. It seems the writer is describing a non-violent struggle by winning the 'Hearts and Minds' of the populace. The next evidence is the symbolic use of "Harlot" (Joshua 2:1, Hebrews 11:31 and Revelation 17:1). John, the author of both treatise makes the connection by presenting the "city of God" or new Jerusalem as a promised sign for the faithful (Hebrews 11:10, 11:16, 12:22, 13:14; Revelation 3:12 and 21:2). John is the writer of the Book of Hebrews because of the term - "the elders" - in Hebrews 11:2 (and Hebrews 12:23) is exactly used in the verses in Revelation 4:10, 5:5, 7:11, 11:16, 14:3, and 19:4. There is also an indirect attack on the Roman philosopher class in Hebrews 12:10 with Revelation 4:11. The writer explicitly attacks "adulterers" which was a feature in the Book of Revelation (Hebrews 13:4, 12:20; and Revelation 2:22, 18:21). The previous was expounded greatly in metaphorical language throughout the Book of Revelation. The use of "marriage" was also a major feature and its contrast of "adultery". There is also a mention of the new tribe concept in Hebrews 7:13 which is an agreement with Paul's Romans 11:24; Revelations chapters seven, eleven and fourteen. Furthermore, the most direct reference and proof is the subject of "witnesses" in Revelation chapter eleven (Revelation 11:3) and Hebrews 10:28. The last proof was more of a feature with the Book of Revelation's writer. The last proof and including the previous amount of evidence suggests an overwhelming conclusion which is unavoidable: the writer of the Book of Revelation is also the writer of the Book of Hebrews.
The verses which makes this document a dispensational document is the usage of the term - "Perdition". It is mentioned twice in the Book of Revelation (Revelation 17:8 and 17:11) and mentioned in the Book of Hebrews (Hebrews 10:39). Therefore, the usage of the previous term defines it as an event which could weaken the faith of some. The previous observation and theory is supported by Paul's own words in 2nd Thessalonians 2:3-4. The "perdition" term is a connection with the false prediction within the Gospel of Matthew (Matthew 24:15) which speaks of a "DESECRATION" rather than the "DESTRUCTION" of the Temple (Daniel 8:13-14, 9:2 and Daniel 9:24). The previous evidence gives a difference between the two and the verse in the Gospel of Matthew was detailing a desecration rather than a total destruction because then Matthew would have used "captivity" rather than fleeing into the mountains or hills. Therefore, the previous mentioned writers were expecting a desecration of the Temple rather than its destruction by the Roman authorities. John lived long enough to revise the Dispensationalist opinion and changed it to a Millennialistic opinion within the Book of Revelation. The key term which makes the Gospel of Matthew a prediction detailing the Temple's desecration, rather than its destruction, is the mention of "sabbath" in Matthew 24:20. The term also expressed an opinion which is an agreement with Paul's opinion in 1st Corinthians 7:26-29. However; after Paul's death and then the destruction of the Temple in A.D. 70, John then later revised his opinion concerning the previous "dispensationalist" view when he was arrested and exiled to the island of Patmos.
There is also a parallel similarity with the Gospel of John chapter twelve, Hebrews 11:36-40, and Revelation 1:9 expressing that John experienced the same hardships as the supposed readers or audience of his letters. The theme of the shared hardship was mentioned in an earlier chapter of "wormwood"(Revelation 8:11) because of the connection with the term - bitterness - which is used in Hebrews 12:15. The overall theme of the figured high priest of the Temple (Hebrews chapters four through ten) is later exemplified in Revelation chapter twenty-one mixed with "New Jerusalem". The previous mixing of themes later is found in Revelation seventeen where "mind", "harlot", and "perdition" is used to describe the city/empire of Rome.
There are references to two subjects located in the Gospel of John which connects the two collection of works: Hebrews and Revelation. These two topics are the Temple and the witnesses.
Throughout several chapters of Hebrews (Hebrews chapters four through ten), the writer describes the role of Jesus as the symbolic high priest which absolves "sins". In the Book of Revelation, Jesus is symbolized as the Temple and Tabernacle (Revelation 21:3 and Revelation 21:22). In the Gospel of John, Jesus is said to describe the destruction of the Temple (John 2:18-22). The Gospel of John, is the only Gospel which infers to the destruction of the Temple. Therefore, the Gospel of John is a Millennialistic document written after the Temple's destruction. The other three Gospels do not refer to the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem (Matthew 21:12-13, Mark 13:14-18, and Luke 19:45-46). In other words, the Gospel of John is the only Gospel to detail the destruction only while the others express both the Temple's destruction and desecration. The definition is now made between two predictions - Dispensationalism and Millennialism. The previous, even though, refers to an expanded and broad interpretation could be used to describe the desecration of the Temple. The later term could be applied to a prediction or group of predictions after the Temple's destruction (It is true that the Temple's destruction is mentioned in the other Gospels but these will be shown to be later additions connected with the Gospel of Matthew's error).
The topic of the witnesses was a guiding principle in the case brought forth against the Roman Empire through a three step process given by John. The three step process was hinted throughout the Book of Revelation as was presented as part of 'The Twenty Theses against Christian Millennialism' located in chapter thirteen of this book. It is known that Paul utilized the defense position - Apologia. While, within the Book of Revelation, John utilized the prosecutor position - Kategoria. The concept of a court case is nothing new among the Jewish and ancient "pagan" nations. In the Book of Revelation, the writer presents a similar court setting before the offensive onslaught which would manifest much later in another important document (Hebrews 10:28) even the phrase "Moses Law" is used. Revelation chapter eleven highlighted or rather expounded the verse of Hebrews 10:28 with a more elaborate story-line which presented the martyrdom of the whole body of Christ,i.e. Christians. The two witnesses are not law books or the two canons which comprises the Bible but rather the actual two groups of Christians (Gentile Christians and Jewish Christians) represented as two loyal individuals. Revelation chapter eleven makes the previous interpretation absolutely clear and ideal in the presentation of a court-like setting. In the Gospel of John, there are supposed witnesses to the case involving adultery (The Gospel of John 8:1-11). There are some early manuscripts which have this story located in the Gospel of Luke after 21:38 but Luke was a loyal companion of Paul. The Gospel of Luke would then have to be written during Paul's imprisonment because of the mention of "Theophilus"(Luke 1:3) and the Book of Acts as the second document (Acts 1:1) for Paul's defense because Paul was a Roman citizen. Therefore, the Gospel of Mark is after Paul's execution by Nero. The controversy of this passage actually exposes the timeline of the Gospels. The Gospel of Mark gave hints of its last entry: Paul's execution (Mark 1:3), Paul's new doctrine (Mark 1:27), the presentation of the two witnesses before Revelation chapter eleven (Mark 6:7-13), and to believe in the "Gospel" after Paul's death (Mark 1:15) which agrees with Paul's definition of "Gospel" (Galatians 2:2).
The order of the Gospels are from first to last: Matthew, Luke, Mark and John. The order of the Gospels would also expose the feelings and emotions poured onto the pages by their writers. Furthermore, the dividing line between Mark and John is the event of the Temple's destruction. The Gospel of John goes into a parabolic frenzy in the beginning of the Gospel. So, the Gospels are written with emotional intelligence expressing the feelings of the writers: Matthew - the Dispensationalist document addressed to Christian community when the Jewish-Christian were the majority, Luke - the Dispensationalist document composed to defend Paul during his imprisonment and the Gospel is before the Book of Acts which is the second document defending Paul in his trial(Acts 1:1), Mark - the Dispensationalist document addressed to the growing Gentile Christian segment of the Christian movement after Paul's execution; and John - the Millennialist document addressed to the Christian community after the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem. While the Book of Hebrews is a document written before the destruction of the Temple, which is a dispensationalist document, presenting a symbolic high priest in the form of Jesus of Nazareth their messiah.
The Book of Hebrews has been proven to be a Dispensationalist document. The case of who wrote it has been attributed to Paul, Barnabas and others. The above proof suggests otherwise and presents a valid hypothesis that Paul did not write the Book of Hebrews. It is true that Timothy was known to be a companion of Paul but also Barnabas was also known to be a companion. What are the missing details which would suggest that the writer is not Paul himself? Or another leading figure? First, the later contentious subject of the "foods sacrificed to idols" were never mentioned but is this a closed case and final evidence? The issue concerning the foods may have been a major issue with Paul and John. The Book of Revelation, written by John, clearly indicates the position of John (Revelation 2:14 and 2:20) and even the subject of these type of foods bought and sold in the Roman marketplace (Revelation 13:16-18) was a dividing issue (Acts 21:25) and even initiated, and the differentiation of two types of human beings, through a symbolic "mark of Armageddon" (Revelation 16:2 and 22:4). Paul also marked his letters through his writings by employing several terms and phrases which were missing in the Book of Hebrews. The Book of Romans, a book or letter written by Paul, has two terms which are not expressed in the Book of Hebrews. The Book of Romans contain the terms - "my Gospel" (Romans 2:16 and 16:25) and "my doctrine" (Romans 16:17). Both of these terms are copied in 2nd Timothy 2:8 and 3:10. The previous is supported by Galatians 2:2. Galatians 2:2 is expressed in the last Gospel, the Gospel of Mark, in several verses (Mark 1:3, Mark 1:15, Mark 1:27 and Mark 6:7). The last verse, Mark 6:7, is evidence that the Gospel of Mark is the third "Gospel" because it is repeated by John in Revelation chapter eleven when John reintroduces the two witnesses. The previous evidence confirms the identity of the two witnesses located in Revelation chapter eleven. The two witnesses are the Jewish-Christian and Gentile Christian members within the 'Body of Christ' or membership composition of the movement. Therefore, the two witnesses are neither future individuals nor symbolic entities. The previous refutes the Matthew passage of Matthew 10:5-15 and it agrees with Paul's opposing vision and John later enforces Paul's opinion but disagree with him concerning the foods sacrificed to idols.
Paul would have also mentioned Barnabas by name through the letters given to the church at Corinth (1st Corinthians 9:6 and 2nd Corinthians 12:1-7). Through deduction, the individual described in the second Corinth letter is not Barnabas but rather John. Colossians 4:10 is further evidence that Paul would have directly mention Barnabas in the 2nd Corinthians passage. The other passages which mention Barnabas by name is Galatian 2:1, Acts 4:36, Acts 9:27, Acts 11:22, Acts 12:25, Acts 13:1, Acts chapter fourteen, and Acts chapter fifteen. The next evidence will present the words of Barnabas which expresses two things: a) Barnabas also believed Jesus would have returned before or during the Temple's desecration or destruction. b) John wrote the Book of Hebrews because of Barnabas' style of writing. The evidence derives from the Epistles of Barnabas:
Chapter 4. Antichrist is at hand: let us therefore avoid Jewish errors
It therefore behooves us, who inquire much concerning events at hand, to search diligently into those things which are able to save us. Let us then utterly flee from all the works of iniquity, lest these should take hold of us; and let us hate the error of the present time, that we may set our love on the world to come: let us not give loose reins to our soul, that it should have power to run with sinners and the wicked, lest we become like them. The final stumbling-block (or source of danger) approaches, concerning which it is written, as Enoch says, For for this end the Lord has cut short the times and the days, that His Beloved may hasten; and He will come to the inheritance. And the prophet also speaks thus: Ten kingdoms shall reign upon the earth, and a little king shall rise up after them, who shall subdue under one three of the kings. In like manner Daniel says concerning the same, And I beheld the fourth beast, wicked and powerful, and more savage than all the beasts of the earth, and how from it sprang up ten horns, and out of them a little budding horn, and how it subdued under one three of the great horns. You ought therefore to understand. And this also I further beg of you, as being one of you, and loving you both individually and collectively more than my own soul, to take heed now to yourselves, and not to be like some, adding largely to your sins, and saying, The covenant is both theirs and ours. But they thus finally lost it, after Moses had already received it. For the Scripture says, And Moses was fasting in the mount forty days and forty nights, and received the covenant from the Lord, tables of stone written with the finger of the hand of the Lord; (Exodus 31:18, Exodus 34:28) but turning away to idols, they lost it. For the Lord speaks thus to Moses: Moses go down quickly; for the people whom you have brought out of the land of Egypt have transgressed. (Exodus 32:7; Deuteronomy 9:12) And Moses understood [the meaning of God], and cast the two tables out of his hands; and their covenant was broken, in order that the covenant of the beloved Jesus might be sealed upon our heart, in the hope which flows from believing in Him. Now, being desirous to write many things to you, not as your teacher, but as becomes one who loves you, I have taken care not to fail to write to you from what I myself possess, with a view to your purification. We take earnest heed in these last days; for the whole [past] time of your faith will profit you nothing, unless now in this wicked time we also withstand coming sources of danger, as becomes the sons of God. That the Black One may find no means of entrance, let us flee from every vanity, let us utterly hate the works of the way of wickedness. Do not, by retiring apart, live a solitary life, as if you were already [fully] justified; but coming together in one place, make common inquiry concerning what tends to your general welfare. For the Scripture says, Woe to them who are wise to themselves, and prudent in their own sight! (Isaiah 5:21) Let us be spiritually-minded: let us be a perfect temple to God. As much as in us lies, let us meditate upon the fear of God, and let us keep His commandments, that we may rejoice in His ordinances. The Lord will judge the world without respect of persons. Each will receive as he has done: if he is righteous, his righteousness will precede him; if he is wicked, the reward of wickedness is before him. Take heed, lest resting at our ease, as those who are the called [of God], we should fall asleep in our sins, and the wicked prince, acquiring power over us, should thrust us away from the kingdom of the Lord. And all the more attend to this, my brethren, when you reflect and behold, that after so great signs and wonders were wrought in Israel, they were thus [at length] abandoned. Let us beware lest we be found [fulfilling that saying], as it is written, Many are called, but few are chosen.
The six proofs are given above to show that Barnabas was speaking about the possible desecration of the Temple agreeing with Paul's earlier false prediction (2nd Thessalonians 2:1-10). The previous passage in 2nd Thessalonians and Barnabas own words(or words attributed to Barnabas) would point to the Roman emperor Nero desecrating the Temple. Later; John would revise the message and give the anti-Christ, Nero, a number in Revelation chapter thirteen even though Nero had died years earlier and Vespesian destroyed the Temple. The "666" designation towards Nero was in honor of his fallen comrade, Paul, through the hands of Nero. The previous observation means that John was actually describing the Spirit of Nero existing in all future Roman emperors as long as they are loyal to the Roman law codes and trying to force Christians to worship Roman idols at the marketplace where food is bought and sold.
Chapter 16. The spiritual temple of God
Moreover, I will also tell you concerning the temple, how the wretched [Jews], wandering in error, trusted not in God Himself, but in the temple, as being the house of God. For almost after the manner of the Gentiles they worshipped Him in the temple. But learn how the Lord speaks, when abolishing it: Who has meted out heaven with a span, and the earth with his palm? Have not I? (Isaiah 40:12) Thus says the Lord, Heaven is My throne, and the earth My footstool: what kind of house will you build to Me, or what is the place of My rest? (Isaiah 66:1) You perceive that their hope is vain. Moreover, He again says, Behold, they who have cast down this temple, even they shall build it up again. It has so happened. For through their going to war, it was destroyed by their enemies; and now: they, as the servants of their enemies, shall rebuild it. Again, it was revealed that the city and the temple and the people of Israel were to be given up. For the Scripture says, And it shall come to pass in the last days, that the Lord will deliver up the sheep of His pasture, and their sheep-fold and tower, to destruction. And it so happened as the Lord had spoken. Let us inquire, then, if there still is a temple of God. There is— where He himself declared He would make and finish it. For it is written, And it shall come to pass, when the week is completed, the temple of God shall be built in glory in the name of the Lord. (Daniel 9:24-27; Haggai 2:10) I find, therefore, that a temple does exist. Learn, then, how it shall be built in the name of the Lord. Before we believed in God, the habitation of our heart was corrupt and weak, as being indeed like a temple made with hands. For it was full of idolatry, and was a habitation of demons, through our doing such things as were opposed to [the will of] God. But it shall be built, you observe, in the name of the Lord, in order that the temple of the Lord may be built in glory. How? Learn [as follows]. Having received the forgiveness of sins, and placed our trust in the name of the Lord, we have become new creatures, formed again from the beginning. Wherefore in our habitation God truly dwells in us. How? His word of faith; His calling of promise; the wisdom of the statutes; the commands of the doctrine; He himself prophesying in us; He himself dwelling in us; opening to us who were enslaved by death the doors of the temple, that is, the mouth; and by giving us repentance introduced us into the incorruptible temple. He then, who wishes to be saved, looks not to man, but to Him who dwells in him, and speaks in him, amazed at never having either heard him utter such words with his mouth, nor himself having ever desired to hear them. This is the spiritual temple built for the Lord.
The proofs above presents to the reader:
1) Barnabas also believed in Paul's vision that the Temple would still be standing and be desecrated by the Roman emperors or Nero himself. 
2) Barnabas believed in the spiritual Temple in the personage of Jesus which is repeated by John in the Book of Revelation (Revelation 21:22).
3) Barnabas never predicted the destruction of the Temple by the Romans.
Chapter 21. Conclusion
It is well, therefore, that he who has learned the judgments of the Lord, as many as have been written, should walk in them. For he who keeps these shall be glorified in the kingdom of God; but he who chooses other things shall be destroyed with his works. On this account there will be a resurrection, on this account a retribution. I beseech you who are superiors, if you will receive any counsel of my good-will, have among yourselves those to whom you may show kindness: do not forsake them. For the day is at hand on which all things shall perish with the evil [one]. The Lord is near, and His reward. Again, and yet again, I beseech you: be good lawgivers to one another; continue faithful counsellors of one another; take away from among you all hypocrisy. And may God, who rules over all the world, give to you wisdom, intelligence, understanding, knowledge of His judgments, with patience. And be taught of God, inquiring diligently what the Lord asks from you; and do it that you maybe safe in the day of judgment. And if you have any remembrance of what is good, be mindful of me, meditating on these things, in order that both my desire and watchfulness may result in some good. I beseech you, entreating this as a favour. While yet you are in this fair vessel, do not fail in any one of those things, but unceasingly seek after them, and fulfil every commandment; for these things are worthy. Wherefore I have been the more earnest to write to you, as my ability served, that I might cheer you. Farewell, you children of love and peace. The Lord of glory and of all grace be with your spirit. Amen.
The above evidence is clearly suggesting that the predictions will be manifested during the era of the writer and not in the future. Barnabas never mentions the two witnesses located in Hebrews 10:28 despite that he mentioned Moses in his epistle. However, only John repeats the subject of the two witnesses (Hebrews 10:28) and minds (Hebrews 8:10 and 10:16) in the Book of Revelation (Revelation 11:3 and 17:8-13). Barnabas also never mentions the term - "perdition" - which is stated in Revelation chapter seventeen and Hebrews 10:39. Therefore, both Barnabas and Paul definitely did not write the Book of Hebrews but there is plenty of evidence to suggest John composed the Book of Hebrews. Furthermore, John wrote the Book of Hebrews before the supposed Temple's desecration and evident destruction by the order of the Roman emperor Vespesian.

Where is the evidence the Book of Hebrews was debated and in doubt concerning its authorship? In A.D. 413, St. Augustine of Hippo wrote his book - City of God - in his treatise he describes the ongoing debate concerning the authorship concerning the Book of Hebrews:

" Many important things are written about Melchizedek in the epistle entitled To the Hebrews(*), which the majority attribute to apostle Paul, though some deny the attribution." Derived from footnote(*) - Hebrews chapter 7. The Pauline authorship of the epistle was generally accepted in the East by the third century, though Origen doubted it. The West in general rejected the attribution, and in North Africa, Barnabas was said to be the author. (SOURCE: City of God, Book 16 - chapter 22)

Monday, June 18, 2012

Chapter 14 - Evidence of False Predictions within the Old Testament Canon

Chapter 14 - Evidence of False Predictions within the Old Testament Canon

The validity of whether the Book of Revelation is derived from a divine source has been presented. The conclusion being that the treatise is a natural by-product of the mind of John rather from a supposed supernatural source. The evidence provided in this chapter will show that the verses from the Old Testament were used out-of-context by the New Testament authors. The evidence below would also present how the Old Testament writers wrote events in their respective books after the fact. Here are just some examples before the thesis is presented:

1. Hosea 6:1-3 - The verses were used out-of-context by James, the early leader of the Christian community. The deduction was made through a Jewish source and the Book of James, and the Gospel of Matthew to conclude verses from Hosea were utilized to convey falsely the supposed resurrection concerning Jesus of Nazareth.

2. Zechariah 12:10 - John, the writer of the Book of Revelation, utilized the said verse to convey the immediate return of Jesus during Roman times rather than after the era of the Roman Empire(John 19:34 and Revelation 1:7). In other words, John falsely predicted Jesus of Nazareth's return. The Zechariah verse is rather describing the "piercing" of Jewish Law. The verses within chapter twelve of Zechariah is describing the violation of Jewish Law after another event concerning the next Temple destruction. The problem is that the chapter does not clearly describes the Romans destroying the Temple, therefore, the writer of Zechariah was simply expressing the eventual cycle of antagonism between Jews and non-Jews because of the constant violation of Jewish Law by the Jewish population or more specifically the Jewish priests. The supporting evidence for the previous supposition is located in Zephaniah 3:4 which describes the personification of Jewish Law and therefore the Temple at Jerusalem.

3. Malachi 4:5-6 - The return of Elijah has been shown to be a clear indicator of a false prophecy and consequently a false prediction within the Old Testament canon. The verse from Malachi also proves that "Heaven" and "Hell" clearly does not exist. The presented verses from Malachi also shows that previous writers before Malachi disputed the whereabouts of Elijah: 2nd Kings 2:11-12 and 2nd Chronicles 21:12. The previous Malachi verse was then later reinterpreted by the New Testament writers. The writers attempted to answer the question concerning the whereabous of Elijah. The contradictions within the New Testament canon proves an attempted spiritualization and even presents an omission by one writer: Matthew 11:14, Matthew 17:3 and Matthew 17:10-13 versus Mark 9:11-13. The omission by one particular writer of the New Testament also proves that each writer of the New Testament composed their respective "gospel" as responses to the ideological attacks by competing Messianic movements and refutations against the Jewish priests loyal to the Roman Empire(1st Corinthians 10:18). Elijah is either John the baptist, Jesus or he returned and later died. The contradictions within the "Gospels" makes it clear that the writers are responding to a flurry of questions by their ideological opponents within the Jewish community. The problem started in the Old Testament canon in the 2nd Kings and 2nd Chronicles sources which was then attempted to be explained by Malachi and then misinterpreted by the New Testament writers. The contradictions within the Old Testament canon concerning Elijah and later the New Testament events, surrounding the Temple's destruction by the Romans, exposes a foundational flaw in both the Jewish and Christian belief systems.

4. The mention of "Cyrus" in Isaiah 44:28 and Isaiah 45:1 - Both of these verses from the book of Isaiah are also mentioned in 2nd Chronicles 36:22-23 and Ezra 1:1-2. The order of theses verses, historically, starts with Ezra then 2nd Chronicles then ending in the Isaiah verses. The writer or writers of 2nd Chronicles were rewritting the history of the Jewish people after the seventy years of captivity by the Babylonians(Ezra 7:10). Therefore, the verses in the book of Isaiah were written last or after the fact. There are many other verses within the book of Isaiah which personifies the city of Jerusalem or Jewish law.

5. The mention of Messiah in Daniel 9:25-26 - The main word of contention is "build" in Daniel 9:25. The verse is describing Zerubbabel in Haggai 1:14 and Haggai 2:23(Zechariah 4:9). The reason for this conclusion is because the "messiah" of Daniel is also referenced in Ezekiel 45:7 and Ezekiel 45:17 as "prince". Paul and other New Testament writers specifically made a stand against the idea that Jesus represents the return of tabernacle/temple ceremonies (Hebrews 6:19-20, Hebrews 9:9-11 and Ephesians 5:27). The concept of "messiah" also differs on the issue of the human and superhuman qualities between the Jewish and Christian communities. The start of describing the "messiah" before its introduction in the book of Daniel, is through the ceremonies involving the tabernacle in the "wilderness" with Moses(Leviticus 16:32 and Exodus 28:41). Therefore, the "messiah" was always known as the "anointed one" as it was used to appoint the leader of the Jewish people(1st Samuel 6:12). There is no evidence presenting the "messiah" of Daniel to be having superhuman qualities fitting Paul's description. The New Testament writers not only were confused and exaggerated the role of Elijah but also did not properly describe the "messiah" accordingly (Matthew 24:15, Mark 13:14, John 1:41,John 4:25 and Hebrews 1:9). Furthermore, the term "prince" in Daniel 9:25 also identifies Zerubbabel and the struggle to rebuild the Temple after Babylonian exile. Zechariah 4:9 is connected with Zechariah 3:1 with "satan" appearing as "satan" was also referenced in Ezekiel 38:2 and Ezekiel 39:1. The previous evidence suggest that "satan" appeared metaphorically to obstruct in the rebuilding of the Temple and this struggle identifies Zerubbabel as the "messiah" and "prince" of Daniel 9:25-26. Paul and John later tried to interject a theory concerning Jesus of Nazareth as being not only the "messiah" but also as "God". John, the writer of the book of Revelation, truly believed that a Persian-like nation would arise and remove the Roman Empire based on his interpretation of Daniel 10:13. The previous theory will be elaborated later. Nevertheless, one evidence which must be shown is that Daniel never produced a 13th chapter to his book and John had a 13th chapter to describe the anti-christ of his book which describes Nero. The previous suggests that superstitions and false assumptions guided the writer of the book of Revelation based on the interpretations of earlier writers of Jewish history. The omission by Daniel was clearly interpreted later by the New Testament writers to symbolically use the number "13" for various reasons. For example, the so-called 13th disciple within the "Gospels" and the inclusion of a 13th chapter in Revelation to describe Nero and the spirit of Nero.

6. The oracle concerning Egypt: Isaiah 19:19-25. Clearly, this verse is not the only absurdity existing within the book of Isaiah. The writings are partly written after the facts and partly hoping that future outcomes or probabilities favor the Jewish community.

David Hume (1711-1776), English philosopher, formulated a philosophical observation concerning the phenomenon of the mind to develop patterns of false indicators called 'Problem(or Principle) of Induction':

  1. Generalizing about the properties of a class of objects based on some number of observations of particular instances of that class (for example, the inference that "all swans we have seen are white, and therefore all swans are white", before the discovery of black swans) or
  2. Presupposing that a sequence of events in the future will occur as it always has in the past: the Principle of Uniformity of Nature.

In conjunction with David Hume's observation of the Problem of Induction; the following formula is given, in order, concerning false predictions or false indicators within the Old Testament:

( 1 ) The false assumptions concerning the intent of the verses,

( 2 ) Then conjuring up false interpretations concerning the said verses,

( 3 ) Therefore, concluding in the false predictions of the said verses.

There are also clear patterns of focusing events, literal events, within the Old Testament itself which is a reflection of actual events. For example, Moses wrote the first five books before his death retelling what occured with a few acceptions of exaggeration. The rest follow this particular pattern with acception of the Chronicle books. There are also the mention of several missing books within the Old Testament itself. David Hume's presentation could actually be directly proven to exist when describing the usage of the term: "wormwood".

The writer of the book of Revelation, John, was expecting seventy years of Roman captivity. The ending of this seventy years of Roman captivity would have ended with the destruction and removal of the Roman Empire by another Persian-like entity which removed the Babylonians from the scene of history. The details of this pattern was previously presented in the chapter:

 Chapter 5 - The meaning of the term "wormwood" and the seven decades cycle prophecy

The evidence of 'the Problem(or Principle) of Induction' is to highlight two sources. The evidence from the Book of Revelation and a Jewish source which clearly indicates John's false assumptions which developed into a false prediction. The 'Induction error' is clearly an empirical and historical manifestation which is not metaphysical. First, the verses from the book of Revelation and then the Jewish evidence which assists in the error.

Revelation 8:11 - " And the name of the star is called wormwood: and the third part of the waters became wormwood, and many men died of the waters, because they were made bitter. "(Exodus 15:23, Ezekiel 3:14 and Lamentations 3:15-19). This is an indication of seventy years of Roman occupation copying the same pattern from the seventy years Babylonian exile.

Revelation 7:2, Revelation 9:20-21, Revelation 15:1-8 and Revelation 16:2 are indicators which are describing the hope of the introduction of a Persian-like entity to destroy the new Babylonians(1st Peter 5:13) - the Roman Empire.

The Jewish Talmudic evidence:

" Five things happened to our forefathers on the 17th of Tammuz, and five on the 9th of Ab. On the 17th of Tammuz (1.) the tables of the covenant were broken; (2.) the daily sacrifice was done away with; (3.) the city walls were cleft asunder; (4.) Apostumes burned the roll of the law; (5.) and set up an idol in the temple. On the 9th of Ab (1.) the decree was uttered that our ancestors should not enter the land of Canaan; both the (2.) first and the (3.) second Temple were destroyed; (4.) Byther was subjugated and (5.) the city was plowed up. " (SOURCE: Taanith, fol. 26, cols 1, 2.)

The sources above is a clear indication that Josephus and John both expected something to occur after the seventy years were completed. The Jewish writers were hopeful that after seventy years, supernaturally, their god would deliver them or liberate them through god's means. This false assumption was expressed through the book of Revelation. The introduction; within the material timeline of humanity, of Christian Millennialism and the Dispensationalist doctrine, years later, was clearly a way to "move the goalpost" eventhough it has been proven that the whole contents of the Bible are filled with false predictions and historical fallacies.

Sunday, June 17, 2012

Chapter 15 - Evidence of Proof Editing within the Gospels

Chapter 15 - Evidence of Proof Editing within the Gospels
The four Gospels located in the New Testament canon were influenced and composed after an important event. These four pivotal events created the four Gospels. The definition of these pivotal events are termed in Political Science as focusing events. What are focusing events? It is defined by the Political Scientist named John Kingdon as 'an event that can generate attention to public problems'. In the subject concerning the formation of the four Gospels, the issue may also be directed towards another Political Scientist. The name of the Political Scientist is Paul Sabatier who observed the advocacy coalition framework. The definition of 'advocacy coalition framework' is that groups coalesce on peripheral beliefs or agendas. Both theories could be proven valid by applying it to the composition of the four Gospels. After presenting these theories and applying it to the four Gospels, the evidence of editing would be shown.
Focusing Events for each Gospel:
(1) Matthew - The execution or crucifixion, and supposed resurrection of Jesus of Nazareth. The Gospel of Matthew was titled: “The Testament of Jesus” (Matthew 26:28).
(2) Luke - The first defense document for Paul under the review of Theophilus because Paul was a Roman citizen (Luke 1:3) while the Book of Acts is the second document composed for Paul's defense (Acts 1:1) written because of further Jewish priests' antagonism (Acts 22:22, Acts 25:20-27, and Acts 26:1-3). During the composition of the Gospel of Luke the Gentile Christian membership within the Christian movement was growing and this may have threatened the Roman government. Paul's actions to spread the faith among Gentiles was seen as a threat to both the Roman government and the Jewish priests at the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem.
(3) Mark - The response to the execution of Paul by the Roman emperor Nero in A.D. 67. The Gospel of Mark's main evidence is Mark 6:7-13 which is a refutation or correction to Matthew 10:5-15 and this refutation was in agreement with John in the Book of Revelation chapter eleven where the two witnesses are reintroduced. The correction is supported by Paul's own statement in 2nd Timothy 3:16-17. Paul's own opinion proves that the New Testament canon is a natural creation rather than a supernatural one. The supporting evidence within the Gospel of Mark is Mark 1:3 - " The voice of one crying in the wilderness,....". Also, Mark 1:27 - "...what new doctrine is this? for with authority command he even the unclean spirits, and they do obey him." The previous is in agreement with Paul's act in Acts 19:1-20. This means that the Gospel of Luke and the book of Acts was written first before the Gospel of Mark. The death or martyrdom of Paul was the focusing event which lead to the composition of the Gospel of Mark. Paul used "new doctrine" in Acts 17:19 through Luke's penship. The previous evidence, of Mark 1:27 and Acts 17:19, is considered The Causility Proof presenting a cause and effect through focusing events within the context of the four Gospels.
(4) John - The destruction of the Jewish Temple by the Romans under Vespasian in A.D. 70. The Gospel was written to refute the many claims that the messianic movement is false because of a failed prediction concerning the desecration of the Temple. Even if it was a destruction rather than a desecration, the return of Jesus did not materialize according to Paul's vision (1st Corinthians 7:26-31 and 2nd Thessalonians 2:1-7). The opposition within and without, grew based on the false prediction (Matthew chapter twenty-four with Paul's previous vision or prediction), which was addressed before through the earlier three Epistles of John by describing those individuals as "anti-Christ" because they stopped believing (1st John 2:15-23 and 1st John 4:1-6). The three Epistles of John was before the composition of the Gospel of John and after the Gospel of Mark and immediately after the Temple's destruction. The Book of Revelation was written after the arrest of John because of the contents within the Gospel of John. John honors Paul and the message within the Gospel of Mark by mentioning the two witnesses in Revelation chapter eleven. John takes on the prosecutor's role against the Roman Empire in contrast to the defense presented in the Gospel of Luke and the Book of Acts. The short time span between the Gospel of Mark and the destruction of the Temple would mean that many themes would eventually be adopted by John in his various later treatises with exception to his earlier dispensationalist document - The Book of Hebrews.
The Gospel of Matthew is a dispensationalist document for various reasons. One of the main reasons is that Matthew wrote the Gospel of Matthew when Paul and Peter was preaching in Rome. Its dedication to its fallen messiah has various flaws which defy historical events. There are several anomalies within the Gospel of Matthew which foretells many events which never occurred and unusual social viewpoints which may have countered one of Paul's position. One of the group verses in question is Matthew 10:5-15. The contents of the previous group of verses states that the early Christians were to evangelize only to Jews (Matthew 10:6). However, the path Paul takes is to evangelize to the Gentiles or non-Jews (Galatians 2:2). The position Paul takes may have been the reason for his controversial status among the early leadership. The evidence of Paul's will-power to disobey is located in his letters. Paul uses the phrase: "my Gospel" (Romans 2:16, 16:25; 2nd Timothy 2:8) and "my doctrine" (Romans 16:17; 2nd Timothy 3:10) and even "dispensation" and "mystery" (Colossians 1:25-29). The various anomalies within the first Gospel, the Gospel of Matthew, a natural manifestation and exposes all of the rest of the New Testament to be from a non-supernatural source. Paul's interjection and correction lead to the natural survival of the Christian movement years later. The anomaly of Matthew 10:6 is part of the error of Matthew 24:20 where "sabbath" is mentioned and also the error of Matthew 27:52-53. The previous are mentioned as "errors" because they seem out-of-place compared to the ongoing dogma produced by the modern churches however its out-of-placeness is proof that the New Testament is not factual or not based on reality. Therefore, Paul is and was a change agent within the Christian movement itself. Paul was exactly what the Christian movement needed to overcome and prevail over the Roman Empire through natural means. Paul actions created a reaction among the Jewish-Christians which created the other books within the New Testament canon. If Paul never joined the Christian movement then the outcome would have been highly probable that the New Testament canon would have contained less number of books.
Paul's own existence created a thesis (Romans 11:23-26) and the reaction was the enforcement of an anti-thesis (Matthew 10:6) therefore creating a necessary synthesis (James chapter four). James reaction to the new doctrine and personality, Paul, is noted in the Book of Acts. The compromise for the new doctrine and new gospel (Romans 11:23-26) was to make sure that Gentile Christians stay away from foods sacrificed to idols (Acts 21:18-25). The previous issue became a central focus of disagreement (1st Corinthians chapter eight) but the real issue was the acceptance of the Non-Jews into the fold (Galatians 2:7-17) because of the early group's observance of Matthew 10:6. The disagreement itself proves that the New Testament canon is a natural manifestation of group think or Paul Sabatier's advocacy coalition framework. The previous description is a valid description because all of the rest of the Books within the New Testament is based on natural events outside the group (The early Christian movement) and the disagreements within the group (The early Christian movement). The followers of the Gospel of Matthew and the Jewish-Christian position existed within the early Christian movement (2nd Timothy 2:16-19). Hymenaeus and Philetus were not the only ones within the early group which strictly followed the Gospel of Matthew. It is assumed that many "heresies" developed based on the various errors within the Gospel of Matthew (2nd Peter 2:1). The "Heresies" are a natural product if the message is already in error and contains false predictions (Matthew 24:20).
Saul of Tarsus, Paul, was an instrumental genius in making sure that the early Christian group succeded in its survival while introducing a Roman concept which would have expanded the tribal base or foundation of the Jewish-Christian tribe. Yes, Paul adopted a Roman concept which was promoted or promulgated by an earlier Roman emperor by the name of Caesar. The Roman emperor Caesar was observing the early history concerning the formation of the Roman empire which comprises the tribes of Latins, Sabines and the Etruscans. The other factor is the festival of the Septimontium which represents the communities of the seven hills: Oppius, Palatium, Velia, Fagutal, Cermalus, Caelius, and Cispius. The two previous examples were definitely used as antagonist agents within the storyline of the Book of Revelation. The previous antagonist agents were against the protoganist agents represented as the two witnesses (Mark 6:7-13 and Revelation chapter eleven). Moreover, the clash against the order located in Matthew 10:6 created the need for another Gospel. The Gospel of Mark was created and guided by Paul (2nd Timothy 4:11). In other words, after Paul's martyrdom through Nero, the Gospel of Mark was then written in dedication to Paul. While the Gospel of Luke and the Book of Acts, earlier, were written as defense documents for Paul's trial. However, the main thesis was to introduce an inclusion policy to the earlier Matthew dictum (Matthew 10:5-15). Furthermore, it enforced the expansion principle of the universi concept. The concept was then promoted by Paul in his defense trial in Acts 10:37-39. The corresponding verses of Matthew 10:5-15 which are located in the Gospel of Mark are Mark 6:1-13. The previous example is evidence of proof editing. The story is altered greatly and it leaves out many details for a reason because it enforces Paul's universi concept. The corresponding verses located in the Gospel of Luke are Luke 9:1-6. The theory is that the term "Gospel" (Luke 9:6) was invented by Paul but was then later inserted into the other Gospels including Matthew's Gospel. Therefore, the order of Gospels based on the above focusing events are:

Matthew ---> Luke ---> Mark ---> John.
The main evidence the words of Irenaeus:
"Matthew also issued a written Gospel among the Hebrews in their own dialect while Peter and Paul were preaching at Rome and laying the foundations of the church." - Irenaeus, Adv. Haer. 3.1.1
1.      The predictions in the Gospels before the Gospel of John are proven to be false predictions.
2.      The Gospels of Luke and Mark are both following the dictum of Matthew chapter twenty-four describing the desecration of the Temple.
3.      The only Gospel to detail the destruction of the Temple is the Gospel of John (John 2:19-24 = Revelation 21:22). It is the only Gospel to present the destruction of the Temple while omitting its failed desecration.
4.      The Gospel of John was written after the Temple’s destruction in defense of the previous false predictions located in the previous three Gospels.
The term "Gospel" would be the first indication of Proof editing within the "Gospels": Euangelion (Gospel) which means "good message" in Koine Greek is literally connected with the supernatural assumptions of angels. How was this term introduced into the New Testament canon? Paul, the early catalyst, created this term through his training as a Jewish priest and Greek academic. The scholar, Will Durant in Caesar and Christ, says about Paul:

" Nevertheless, he learned to speak the language with sufficient fluency to address an Athenian audience, and he occasionally referred to famous passages in Greek literature. We may believe that some Stoic theology and ethics passed from the university environment of Tarsus into the Christianity of Paul. So he used the Stoic term pneuma (breath) for what his English translators call spirit. Like most Greek cities, Tarsus had followers of the Orphic or other mystery religions, who believed that the god they worshiped had died for them, had risen from the grave, and would, if appealed to by lively faith and proper ritual, save them from Hades, and share with them his gift of eternal and blessed life. The mystery religions prepared the Greeks for Paul, and Paul for the Greeks." (pg. 579)

" Moved by his own somber spirit and remorse, and his transforming vision of Christ; influenced perhaps by Platonist and Stoic denunciations of matter and the body as evil; recalling, it may be, Jewish and pagan customs of sacrificing a "scapegoat" for the sins of the people, Paul created a theology of which none but the vaguest warrants can be found in the words of Christ: that every man born of woman inherits the guilt of Adam, and can be saved from eternal damnation only by the atoning death of the Son of God. Such a conception was more agreeable to the pagans than to the Jews. Egypt, Asia Minor, and Hellas had long since believed in gods - Osiris, Attis, Dionysus - who had died to redeem mankind; such titles as Soter (Savior) and Eleutherios (Deliverer) had been applied to these deities; and the word Kyrios (Lord), used by Paul of Christ, was the term given in Syrian-Greek cults to the dying and redeeming Dionysus. The gentiles of Antioch and other Greek cities, never having known Jesus in the flesh, could only accept him after the manner of their savior gods. "Behold," said Paul, "I show you a mystery."" (pgs. 588-589)

Paul, the most important catalyst and spark for the Christian movement, instituted the ideological and doctrinal reforms needed to make sure the movement survives. Through the introduction of these new doctrines and ideology the new terms of "Gospel" or "Euangelion" were used and employed by the first Gospel writer - Matthew. Then the term was keeped and used by the rest of the "Gospel" writers - Luke, Mark and John. (Luke 22:20, Mark 14:24, Hebrews 7:22, Hebrews 9:15-20, and Revelation 11:19)
The theory is that the original name of the Gospel of Matthew was "The Testament of Jesus" based on the statements of both Paul and John (1st Corinthians 11:25 and Hebrews 9:15-20). Through deduction if the terms - Gospel or Euangelion - were not used earlier in the Christian movement then another term was used in its place until the "Gospel" were formed later out of the four "Gospels". Therefore, it was actually "The Testament of Jesus" which was formerly expressed within the Gospel of Matthew, the first Gospel, Matthew 26:28.

The previous creates the following possibilities:

1. Jesus composed a book which later became unaccessible to all members of the community.

2. Jesus composed a book which was used as a source by a few members of the community.

3. Jesus composed a book which was used or keeped by one member of the community.

4. Jesus never composed a book but his later followers decided to compose one then several "gospels" because earlier all events were passed on by oral tradition (Acts 10:37-39). However, the Gospel of Matthew was composed first and then Paul added his new ideology to the story expressed in the previous Acts passage.

 The evidence for the existence of the title - The Testament of Jesus - could also be deducted through historical sources. The verse of Matthew 26:28 is within the context of the last supper of Christ (Matthew 26:13-35). If this is the case then the supposed 'Last supper of Christ' may have never occured based on the previous evidence from Will Durant and the following evidence from Rebecca Gray. The reason for this conclusion is because it is related to correct a previous mistake in Matthew 10:5-15. The theory is given that the writer, Matthew the tax collector, revised and edited his final copy of the Gospel but left some verses to the pressure of the Jewish-Christians within the community. The following evidence from Rebecca Gray gives another connection to the spiritual symbolism of the 'Last supper' rather than hinting of its literal occurence.

The author, Rebecca Gray in Prophetic Figures in Late Second Temple Jewish Palestine: The Evidence from Josephus says:

" The Essenes' concern for purity and holiness is especially apparent in Josephus' description of their common meal (War 2.129-33), which is paralleled at several points by references to the Pure Meal in the Community Rule. This meal was restricted to fully initiated members of the community in good standing. As we have seen, it was preceded by a purificatory bath and the donning of white robes. The diners then assembled in a room and processed to the refectory "as to some sacred shrine" (Koine Greek words, War 2.131; 1QS 6.4-5). According to Antiquities 18.22, the food that was served was prepared by priests as well. During the meal, silence was maintained (War 2.130, 133). After-ward, the priest said another prayer (War 2.131). Before returning to their work, those present removed their robes, laying them aside "as sacred vestments" (Koine Greek word, War 2.131).
  Josephus' description of this common meal suggests an anology with the priesthood, and several of the purity practices that he attributes to the Essenes are priestly in character. We shall see that some of these rites would have been observed only by priests officiating in the temple. Others were performed routinely by priests, but were also observed on special occasions by ordinary Jews"(pgs. 86-87).

The previous information tells the reader that most of the Gospels have been edited and revised until its final form or copy which was done through general consensus with careful political considerations by those individuals mentioned therein. Even through its final form we notice mistakes and hints of revisions or proof editing. Therefore, the term "gospel" or "Euangelion" was added years later into the so-called "gospels" while "The Testament of Jesus" was primarily used earlier through oral tradition.

Sunday, June 10, 2012

Chapter 22 - The Forces within the New Testament Canon:Metaphysical,Ideological and Material

Chapter 22 - The Forces within the New Testament Canon:Metaphysical,Ideological and Material


Among the individuals mentioned in the New Testament there are three Forces which are generally expressed: Metaphysical, Ideological and Material. The presentation of these forces would present to the reader the natural rather than the supernatural disposition of these post-Temple non-violent revolutionaries.


The previous chapters contained exposed the flaw of the various authors of the New Testament claiming a particular metaphysical truth. The flaw is the physical (or spiritual) return of Jesus of Nazareth accompanied by an awaited sign of a New Jerusalem seven decades after the Roman destruction of the city and Temple. This flaw is venial by the application of a supposed Roman principle which is universal: The inclusion of non-members of a particular local tribe or the willingness to accept others outside of your protective circle.


The above idea is termed "expanding circle", elaborated by Peter Singer, is to expand your circle of altruism to others outside your local concern. Nevertheless, the idea proposed by Peter Singer has been applied by the Roman government at certain periods of its existence. Through this natural evolution, the leaders of the early Christian community, were able to survive and outlive other sects which developed around the Second Temple era. Yes, there were many messianic movements which were as equally influential as the movement associated with Jesus of Nazareth. The groups: Theudas, groups during the procuratorship of Felix, the Egyptian, unnamed figure under Festus, unnamed figure before the Second Temple's destruction, Jonathan the Sicarius, Onias, etc.


There is also a confusion concerning the deeds of Jesus son of Ananias and Jesus of Nazareth. Jesus son of Ananias existed and preached four years before the Second Temple's destruction and was killed(or assassinated) by a Roman spear when the Temple was attacked by the Romans. Strangely, he had done similar things and acts in which Jesus of Nazareth was attributed to in the New Testament Canon.

There is evidence to suggest that when the Gospel writers revised and edited parts of their Gospels (documents), years later, they may have copied the deeds of Jesus son of Ananias and attributed those deeds to their messiah - Jesus of Nazareth.


One thing that must be stated is the evolution of the term "messiah" into a different meaning altogether. It evolved into something more emphatic in stating that a man has become god. This evolution could be seen through the Gospels of Matthew and John were parts of these gospels seems more Jewish in tone and parts of it more convincing to a Gentile (non-Jewish) audience.

Despite these later editions; revisions, and even the changing of the original intent of the Gospel writers these actions have shown how a natural movement could evolve into a great force within humanity utilizing three forces: Metaphysical experiences, Ideological preservation and Material justice.


The Metaphysical experience is intertwined with the other two forces previously mentioned. The verse which expresses all three forces within the Book of Revelation is Revelation 13:17. The verse presented represents the three forces mentioned but is evidence of an expired message concerning Jesus return. The triple point equilibrium phased verse, Revelation 13:17, presents all three forces being enforced through an oppressive theonomy. However, through the oppression and constant vigilant message of various early Christian leaders Christian theonomy prevailed. The verse actually is evidence of the triumph of the Christian theonomy over the Roman imperial theonomy of Nero Caesar:


" And that no man might buy or sell, save he that had the mark, or the name of the beast, or the number of his name".


The five terms above presents the conclusion that John's message within the Book of Revelation has expired by default. The previous subject revolved around the marketplace during Roman times where the Roman imperial theonomy was enforced. Furthermore, when the Roman imperial theonomy was disregarded by Constantine the issue of Jesus return was proven to be false or in error or a fallacy.

What is the evidence?

 The subject of "wormwood" is not even stated but yet the seventy years false prediction could be supported by the victory of the Christian Roman government over the Roman imperial theonomy because the enforcement of the idols in the marketplace is no longer a material reality. The main issue is empirical data over ideology and this has been proven again by the material reality and the enforcement of public policy skewed for the new Christian Roman theonomy through Emperor Constantine. Remember, the conflict has been the issue of the consumption of foods sacrificed to idols which is expressed though the existence of metaphysical marks on skin:


Revelation 2:14, 1st Corinthians 8:4, Romans 9:8, Acts 21:25, Revelation 13:16, Revelation 14:9, Revelation 15:2, Revelation 16:2, Revelation 19:12, Revelation 19:20, Revelation 20:4, Revelation 22:4, Revelation 9:4, and Ezekiel 9:4.


All of the previous fourteen verses above present the theory that when the theonomic changes occurred, with the change of government through Emperor Constantine, the Book of Revelation became irrelevant and an example of a false prediction. The change of government which created a change in public policy, the result being that all of the subjects previously mentioned - "Hell", "Lake of Fire", "Heaven", and "New Jerusalem" - became irrelevant and false. In other words, the Book of Revelation has become a natural manifesto rather than a supernatural letter to the early churches or congregations. For instance, the mention of "idols" in the verse of Revelation 9:20 is evidence of a false prediction. These Roman idols in the marketplace, no longer existed after the verdicts of Emperor Constantine and the Council of Nicea. Furthermore, the return of Jesus of Nazareth never occurred within the seventy years "wormwoood" time span and before the conversion of Emperor Constantine. The previous two signposts exposed the "prophecy" of John to be in error. The seventy years "wormwood" (Revelation 8:11) signpost expired in A.D. 140 because the Temple was destroyed by the Romans in A.D. 70. The conversion of emperor Constantine to Christianity was also an important milestone or signpost because "the idols in the marketplace" (Revelation 2:14) was no longer a public policy and therefore no longer relevant or an hindrance to the early Christian community. The previous is a metaphysical miscalculation which never materialized and the latest milestone, an epistemological materialization, eliminated the verses stated within the Book of Revelation concerning the "marks". The "marks" are initiated through avoiding or participating in the "buying and selling" of foods within the Roman marketplace which contained idols. If the Christian believer avoided the marketplace before the supposed return of Jesus then they had the "mark of god" and if they participated in the marketplace they were branded with the "Mark of the beast". Therefore, the previous observation proved the fallacy contained within the Book of Revelation.

The evidence above now has provided the clue of who is mentioned as beast(s) within the thirteenth chapter of Revelation. The beasts are Seneca and Nero Caesar. Nevertheless, the main beast mentioned is Nero Caesar the Roman emperor during the specific time span of which the Book of Revelation was intended to be addressed and fulfilled.


The metaphysical error presented previously and which includes 'The Twenty theses against Christian Millennialism' (located in chapter thirteen of this book - Book of Revolution) is further proven. The review of the timeline would present that Revelation 20:10 is in error because of Revelation 20:14 and the plethora of evidence previous presented:


The metaphysical error:

Before A.D. 70 - Paul mentions the Dispensationalism doctrine which includes the desecration of the Temple which would result in the rapture of the Christian believers, Paul expected a repeat of Daniel's historical events of the material timeline and not a complete destruction of the Jewish Temple (1st Corinthians 9:17, Colossians 1:25, 1st Corinthians 7:26-29, Ephesians 3:2-3, and 2nd Thessalonians 2:1-4). Only two bodies of work express the Dispensationalist doctrine: The Gospel of Matthew and various letters of Paul of Tarsus. However, Paul challenges Matthew 10:5-15 by stating the universal union of both Jewish-Christians and Gentile Christians by adopting the ideal Roman standard (Romans 11:23-26). The Gospel of Mark is composed to express Paul's ideal. The exchange between Paul and other Christians allows for the creation of letters between members because of ideological clashes between the Christian members. The issue of foods sacrificed to idols became a main issue of contention (1st Corinthians chapter eight). John left Paul after the composition of the Book of Hebrews by John (2nd Corinthians 12:1-9). Paul is martyred by Nero and this event creates the Gospel of Mark. The Roman emperor's action is never forgotten by John because he forever labels Nero as "666"(Revelation 13:18) even though it was Vespasian who destroys the Temple, eventhough it was general Titus on the battlefield, in A.D. 70 five years after Nero's demise and suicide. John addresses the issue of a failed prediction committed by both Paul and Matthew through the Epistles of John which were composed after the Temple's destruction. Then the Gospel of John is created to address issues arising out of the Temple's destruction and the doubts created within the Christian movement. In the Epistle of John, the issue of the spirit of anti-Christ is addressed and shown to be anyone after Nero. The making and distribution of the Gospel of John leads to the arrest and exile of John to the island of Patmos where he writes the Book of Revelation expressing a new timeline of a seventy years waiting and thousand years reign and its composition was intended to keep the nascent messianic movement in play for years to come.


A.D. 70 - The Temple destroyed and Paul's Dispensationalism theory is refuted by the actual events and it forces a few leaders within the Christian movement to become more aggressive. Paul was martyred years earlier by Nero. The last Gospel; the Gospel of John, presented a more direct refutation towards the stoics, the Roman empire and the Jewish Temple priests. It forces officials to arrest John which then they sent him to the island of Patmos where he composes the Book of Revelation. The last testament of John revises Paul's error and introduces a "Great Tribulation" era after the "Tribulation" of Paul which happened at A.D. 70. The earlier gospels and other New Testament letters do not mention "the Lake of Fire". The foods sacrificed to idols were always an issue between Paul and other early Christian leaders. John, in the Book of Revelation, mentions the importance of not eating foods sacrificed to idols because those participating with the system would receive a "mark of the beast". The mention was more direct and also presented the "mark of god" and the "mark of the beast" as opposite metaphysical forces.


After A.D. 70 - The Great Tribulation era has begun with the destruction of the Temple. There is no mention of souls being punished in "Hell" but rather John mentions the role of "the Lake of Fire" as being assigned for this role (Revelation 20:10,20:14 and 21:8). Which is it, the souls are in the ground before rapture or are they sent to either "Hell" or "Heaven"? The writer of the Book of Revelation is ambiguous on this subject. Revelation 20:10 and 21:8 contradicts each other because it is either punishment or a second death or annihilation? The Great Tribulation is supposed to endure for seventy years because of Revelation 8:11 and the term "wormwood" associated with the length of duration previously mentioned with the Babylonian captivity (Revelation 13:10). Furthermore, those who buy and sell foods sacrificed to idols at the Roman marketplace are given an invisible or symbolic "mark of the Beast".


A.D. 140 - John's rapture is supposed to occur. The evil or negative entities are thrown into the Lake of Fire and not "Hell" (Revelation 19:11 and 19:20). Question: what happened to "Hell" and its role? The Thousand year reign of Jesus of Nazareth begins with the Christian believers ruling the Earth with Jesus.


A.D. 1140 - Revelation chapter twenty occurs after a thousand years. A second resurrection occurs without any hints of the role of "Hell". The disbelievers were also simply sleeping until the second resurrection. The definition of "rapture" is formed separating a difference between the two: one with Jesus and the other without Jesus.


After A.D. 1140 - All of the negatives or "evil" entities are thrown into "the Lake of Fire". Is it a punishment duration of the soul or a complete obliteration of the soul? The "new Jerusalem" appears and removes the role of "Heaven". There is no more "Hell" or "Death" (Revelation 20:14). Question: Revelation chapter twenty-two states a new role for humanity loyal to Jesus? Since, it is known that Jesus was a new Adam (Romans 5:14 and 1st Timothy 2:13-15) and the new man as a copying image with a new supernatural relationship (1st Corinthians 15:22-27 and Ephesians 2:15). The previous evidence corresponds with Revelation chapter twenty-two.

The presented evidence above is a metaphysical expression but a flawed one. The writer and author of the Book of Revelation, John, does not explain the role of "Hell" during the whole timeline. It seems that "Hell" does not exist since it was expressed as a separate entity in Revelation 20:14. The reason is that John does not distinguish the role of "Hell" and "the Lake of Fire". The next presentation is an epistemological one because it truly materialized and it would abrogate the commands concerning the "foods" in the marketplace in Revelation 2:14.


The conversion of the Roman emperor Constantine and his co-authored edict of Milan removed these stated obstacles mentioned by John in A.D. 313. The Council of Nicea also brought further freedoms to Christians in A.D. 325. Therefore, there are two types of evidence which have exposed the Book of Revelation "prophecies" or false predictions to be shown:


1) The metaphysical error: The buying and selling of foods sacrificed to idols initiates the "mark of the Beast" which is an example of the clash between marketplace ideologies. The "wormwood" inference given by John presents the flaw of the seventy years "captivity" to his readers.


2) The state enforced Roman marketplace ideology which changed through the Edict of Milan by Emperor Constantine.


The theory is presented: The existence of "the mark of the beast" was supposed to replace "Hell" and "Heaven" until the predicted A.D. 140 appearance of the Messiah Jesus of Nazareth. All of the individuals who have existed during this era are neither in "Hell" nor "Heaven" but are rather marked with one or the other. In other words, either "the mark of God" or "the mark of the beast" while buried in the ground until the rapture or the second resurrection.

The result of the conflict between Nero Caesar's Theonomy versus The Christian Theonomy was the victorious synthesis of the Christian faith and Roman government. The synthesis, which materialized in the historical timeline, abrogated John's prediction because of the "food" order or regulation mentioned in the treatise. John's treatise is now a natural manifesto rather than a supernatural one. Therefore, it expresses the victory of the non-violent Christian revolutionaries over their violent Jewish counterparts who had competing messiahs proclaimed within the same era. The next evidence will present the material reality over the metaphysical error or fallacy within the New Testament canon.

Why did the New Testament writers succeeded despite their false predictions? It was the most liberal ideology of the Roman material era. Despite its similar style of leadership and conservative social codes, the Christian community surpassed the Roman Empire in the concept of the expansion of citizenship among the Christian community. However, the Council of Nicea and other councils suppressed the "Gnostics' and heterodox beliefs circulating among the Christians of the particular era.


One particular verse which expresses a material viewpoint is Romans 15:27. The verse stated by Paul is evidence concerning the importance of material flow acknowledged by one of the earliest Christian community founders. In the book of Acts, Acts 19:23-41, reinforces the importance of material(money) flow especially for the worshippers Artemis. In the same book; Acts 4:32-37, Acts 5:1-11, Acts 8:18, and Acts 24:26. The significance of such acknowledgement is partly the reason for the success of Christianity among some of the Jewish and mostly Gentile population. There are several proofs given to show morale, discipline and mass communication contributed greatly to the success of early Christianity.


One of the scholars of European history gives an account of the early Christian community's success: " Lastly, the Christian religion took over from Judaism an uncompromising monotheism. It was a religion that declared every other to be false, a religion at once exclusive and aggressive. Therein lay an avowed hostility to the Roman imperial system that was to invite persecution; yet therein lay also the strength that was to bring triumph " (SOURCE: Mediaeval History: Europe from the second to the sixteenth century. 4th ed., pg. 43, Carl Stephenson). The source given by the scholar, Carl Stephenson, elaborates how the distinction between secular and religious public duty was never recognized by the Roman state officials. The Roman public was liberal to accept all forms of gods into the public square but demanded a sign of faith to the god of the ruler. The Christians became a target because of their unwillingness to offer or show signs of loyalty to the ruler's god in public. The unwillingness was interpreted by the Roman rulers as sedition and many Christian were then martyred for their faith. The source does not say that it was a mixture of all faiths into one but rather it was simply the recognition by others to show signs of support to the ruler's god. The historical example would create an ideological clash at the marketplace where the gods were honored by all Roman individuals who had their own personal gods. The reminder is given of how it is written in Daniel where loyal Jews refused to bow down to a foreign god (Daniel 3:12) and this example was copied later in the case of the many types of gods liberally permitted by the Roman authorities at the marketplaces (Revelation 2:14 and 2:20) and this was presented by John, symbolically, as "prostitution" (Revelation 17:1).


Another scholar expresses the previous success, " In 311 the emperor Galerius recognized that persecution had failed and issued an edict of toleration making Christianity a legal religion in the east.....Constantine won the battle, and in 313 he issued the Edict of Milan, which legalized Christianity throughout the Empire and put it on a par with all the pagan cults " (SOURCE: Civilization past and present. 4th ed.,pg 126; Scott, Foresman and Company). The previous examples shows the importance of material benefit (Romans 15:27) which supported the ideological struggle and reinforced the metaphysical belief system by a group of believers. Paul's role of the Christian movement was crucial in the fact of his realistic or practical methods and observations which influenced even the writer of the Book of Revelation years after Paul's martyrdom.


For it was Paul's universi tribal concept borrowed from the Roman system which allowed the initial success of the Christian movements message into the Gentile world (Romans chapter eleven). The cause of such a revolutionary idea may have derived from Paul’s temporal or carnal observation but it was also a revision of Matthew 10:5-15. Another scholar, Norman F. Cantor, describes how the capture of state power contributed to the material reality of Christian theonomic governance: " The "reforms" of Diocletian and Constantine did hold the fort for a century until the church was strong enough to take over leadership of society in the fifth century. "(SOURCE: Medieval History: The Life and Death of a Civilization. 2nd ed., pg.23, Norman F. Cantor). The previous author gives a great presentation of the various theories concerning the material downfall of the Roman Empire. The author of the previous source does state his own opinion in the next line which suggest that Christianity was not the solution to the problem but actually contributed further the downfall of European civilization. The problem really is the replacement of a theonomic system with another which never addressed the material reality of the populace. Paul earlier has even given absurd economic solutions to several problems and gave a simple economic observation or a temporary solution addressed towards to the nascent Christian community. It has been proven that both Paul and John had both given false predictions concerning, initially, to the desecration of the Temple and later to the return of Jesus of Nazareth. The Edict of Milan helped materially and this must be highlighted because without material support the faith of Christianity would have never succeeded. The previous problem creates a question: Where was the 'hand of God' in the rebuilding of the Temple (Isaiah 54:15-17)? According to Isaiah, it occurred after the seventy years of exile in Babylon but there was no materialization of a returning Jesus. According to John, Jesus is the Temple (Revelation 21:22) therefore it was expected that Jesus return was to occur seventy years after the Roman destruction of the Temple.


Another scholar states: " Early in 313 Constantine and Licinius met at Milan to co-ordinate their rule. To consolidate Christian support in all provinces, Constantine and Licinius issued an "Edict of Milan," confirming the religious toleration proclaimed by Galerius, extending it to all religions, and ordering the restoration of Christian properties seized during the recent persecutions. After this historic declaration, which in effect conceded the defeat of paganism, " (SOURCE: Caesar and Christ. 9th ed., pg. 654, Will Durant).



The Edict of Milan:


" When we, Constantine and Licinius, emperors, had an interview at Milan, and conferred together with respect to the good and security of the commonweal, it seemed to us that, amongst those things that are profitable to mankind in general, the reverence paid to the Divinity merited our first and chief attention, and that it was proper that the Christians and all others should have liberty to follow that mode of religion which to each of them appeared best; so that that God, who is seated in heaven, might be benign and propitious to us, and to every one under our government. And therefore we judged it a salutary measure, and one highly consonant to right reason, that no man should be denied leave of attaching himself to the rites of the Christians, or to whatever other religion his mind directed him, that thus the supreme Divinity, to whose worship we freely devote ourselves, might continue to vouchsafe His favour and beneficence to us. And accordingly we give you to know that, without regard to any provisos in our former orders to you concerning the Christians, all who choose that religion are to be permitted, freely and absolutely, to remain in it, and not to be disturbed any ways, or molested. And we thought fit to be thus special in the things committed to your charge, that you might understand that the indulgence which we have granted in matters of religion to the Christians is ample and unconditional; and perceive at the same time that the open and free exercise of their respective religions is granted to all others, as well as to the Christians. For it befits the well-ordered state and the tranquillity of our times that each individual be allowed, according to his own choice, to worship the Divinity; and we mean not to derogate aught from the honour due to any religion or its votaries. Moreover, with respect to the Christians, we formerly gave certain orders concerning the places appropriated for their religious assemblies; but now we will that all persons who have purchased such places, either from our exchequer or from any one else, do restore them to the Christians, without money demanded or price claimed, and that this be performed peremptorily and unambiguously; and we will also, that they who have obtained any right to such places by form of gift do forthwith restore them to the Christians: reserving always to such persons, who have either purchased for a price, or gratuitously acquired them, to make application to the judge of the district, if they look on themselves as entitled to any equivalent from our beneficence.
“All those places are, by your intervention, to be immediately restored to the Christians. And because it appears that, besides the places appropriated to religious worship, the Christians did possess other places, which belonged not to individuals, but to their society in general, that is, to their churches, we comprehend all such within the regulation aforesaid, and we will that you cause them all to be restored to the society or churches, and that without hesitation or controversy: Provided always, that the persons making restitution without a price paid shall be at liberty to seek indemnification from our bounty. In furthering all which things for the behoof of the Christians, you are to use your utmost diligence, to the end that our orders be speedily obeyed, and our gracious purpose in securing the public tranquillity promoted. So shall that divine favour which, in affairs of the mightiest importance, we have already experienced, continue to give success to us, and in our successes make the commonweal happy. And that the tenor of this our gracious ordinance may be made known unto all, we will that you cause it by your authority to be published everywhere. "


The inference develops into a hypothesis expressed through the material timeline: "The Roman Material Theory" which is the thesis of the forces mentioned previously. The hypothesis given exposes the real effect of the forces which is the corruption of the state by a few within the corporate entity. The cause of the forces is the imposition of slave or cheap labor which diminishes citizen participation within the state entity causing social disturbances and political instability.