Tuesday, July 31, 2012

Chapter 25 - Christianity: The answer to the spiritual Alienation to the Temple

Chapter 25 - Christianity: The answer to the spiritual alienation to the Temple

The removal of the Temple as a significant symbol has been expressed by John within the Book of Revelation. Therefore; Revelation 21:3 and 21:22 expresses the intent of the writer to remove the "curse" of the Temple because it impeded another important concept which Paul and some of the New Testament writers agreed upon or had consensus. The consensus was the "grafting" of the Gentiles into the fold of Christianity. The previous statement is supported by the existence of the Jewish-Christians and then Paul's critique of James' behavior (Galatians 2:12-17 and Ephesians 2:11-15) and Paul's doctrine (Romans chapter eleven) which agrees with Revelation chapters seven, eleven, fourteen, and twenty-two. The explicit expressions through the writings of the New Testament tells the reader the significance of a change which occurred through Paul's earlier Dispensationalist doctrine.
Ludwig Andreas von Feuerbach (1804-1872) wrote a book titled: Essence of Christianity (1841). The book explains the "alienation" concept to be the separation of individuals or self from humanity and nature because of the unrealistic goal in attaining the pleasure of a specific object ("God"). The previous chapters which contains the previous arguments against Christianity has been proven valid. Therefore, the contents of Ludwig Feuerbach's arguments and presentation will now be evaluated and discussed.
Ludwig's earlier works, Pierre Bayle (1838) and Philosophie und Christentum (1839), says about Christianity: "that Christianity has in fact long vanished not only from the reason but from the life of mankind, that it is nothing more than a fixed idea."
Overall reading and meaning of Ludwig's alienation principle as it pertains to "religion" in general and "gods" or a creator in particular are in three:
( 1 ) Acting Agent (Self Projection or the Ego)
( 2 ) Reacting Agents (Group Projection)
( 3 ) Projected Agent (Creators,Creator,God, Gods or no "god" or the "Ego")
All three projections are derived from the acting agent(the sole individual). The term of "Ego" is a borrowing from the philosophy of individualism, philosophy of Max Stirner - the opposer of Ludwig Feuerbach, Karl Marx, Freiedrich Engels, and the collectivistic materialists in general. Max Stirner was more extreme because he came up with the idea that individuals are alienated from themselves by the objects of "God", humanity, nationalism, and every ideology. While Karl Marx and Freiedrich Engels saw the role of the state in the liberation of mankind from their alienation. Marxism saw the state's role in bringing the family, money or material substance to the individual.
There are several problems with the philosophies of individualism and Marxism(collectivism). Atheistic materialism, even expressed by Max Stirner, totally reject the possibility of a (neutral)creator. The recognition of the possibility of a neutral creator and the proven dialectical material history of Marx creates two new groups: Agnostic materialists and Deist materialists. The previous formed on the idea that there is not enough data to formulate an opinion on the matter and the later formed on the acceptance of a neutral creator. The 50% probability principle, from a previous chapter, makes a statement of the possibility of a neutral creator. Therefore, the unknown Projected Agent may exist even if the Acting Agent is not projecting such an object. Furthermore, an Acting Agent who is an Atheist materialist still has a "Projecting Agent" which is the furtherance of "good" acts.
Furthermore, the idea of the corporate entity has already been introduced into the consciousness of human beings. Moreover, both individualism and sole state collectivism could not prevail against this particular entity. In other words, the corporate entity is a form of collectivism which is part of the reacting agent(Group Projection). Individualism fails on this main issue. Th group of individuals interacting with the sole individual invalidates the individualism of Max Stirner. The existence of "culture" and first learned language refutes individualism. The reason is because an individual learns the two previous objects from other individuals existing in Group Projection(reacting agents).
The problem, as it is being explained through the Essence of Christianity, are the acts committed under the name of "religion" which creates doubt to the validity of the said "religion". The Hegelians, name deriving from Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770 – 1831), had two main problems in Germany towards the Prussian authorities: The state structure and the religious class. The founding members, which Ludwig Feuerbach was part of, critiqued the validity of the "religion". Then years later the young Hegelians, which Karl Marx was part of, critiqued the Prussian state structure itself.
David Strauss, one of the main members of the Hegelians, also wrote an earlier treatise presenting Jesus as simply as a human being: The Life of Jesus. The main issue or subject is the importance of "acts" which is an outward expression of the projection. In other words, there are problems between the definition of the Christian faith and the various "acts" attributed to Jesus.
The errors within the New Testament were already presented and the religious philosophers defending the Christian faith were refuted. David Strauss and Ludwig Feuerbach both have already written volumes concerning the historical errors and philosophical flaws of the belief system of Christianity. However, they have not presented a refutation against a possible neutral creator. Nor have they thoroughly investigated the connections between the inter-relationship of all the books within the New Testament canon.
If the neutral creator exist then the object is separated from nature because of causality or 'cause and effect'. In other words, the neutral creator would not be part of the 'cause and effect' mechanism of the universe or the universal timeline which started at a supposed 'big bang'. Therefore, the natural realm is the mirror of the said object. In comparison, to how we see ourselves as mirrors of others. In other words, the neutral creator would be the acting agent and nature would be the reacting agent. The nature described is the whole universe and its materials as it relates to us as a neutral substance. We, as human beings, derive from the neutral substance(please; refer back to Rene Descartes' classification of the three objects or substances in the universe, however, the "eternal" substance describing "God" would no longer exist because it refers back to "fixed" or first cause of Augustine of Hippo and Thomas Aquinas' formulae).
As human beings, our self-awareness of "good" and "evil" forms our actions. Our actions towards each other is what defines "good" and "evil". In other words, our total understanding of an objective moral imperative is limited by the social conditions which create a relative or imperfect understanding of morality unless subjected to natural evolution. Therefore, what is needed are "good" individuals, "good" corporations, and "good" state governance. The "good" is within the definition of natural rights and its preservation. Furthermore, a possible neutral creator would not be subjected to these conditions because "good" and "evil" derive from the understanding of a sentient being. Therefore, we are alienated from a proven probability: Our positive attributes which derive from our good acts or good works. The first principle of Immanuel Kant's categorical imperative expresses this possibility: "Act only according to that maxim whereby you can, at the same time, will that it should become a universal law."
The foundation of Christianity derives from its alienation of Jesus himself (Revelation 21:3, Revelation 21:22 and the Gospel of John 2:19-21) . In other words; the missing input from Jesus, concerning new issues, created the impetus for the formation of Christianity. In comparison to the three previous paragraphs, we witness the three errors: (1) The lack of historical verification because it is known Matthew, the first writer of the first Gospel, wrote his Gospel when Paul was an active member of the community years after Jesus' death. (2) Hence, there are no actual words of Jesus himself then there would be no reason for the four Gospels. The very fact that there is a 'cause and effect' mechanism like the 'focusing events' mentioned earlier invalidates the Gospels. (3) Anyone with any belief could do "good" and forbid "evil" which is universal. James even challenges the early Christians: "But you know, vain man, that faith without (good) works is dead?" (James 2:20)
Christianity was formed from the spiritual alienation to Jesus the spiritual Temple or their object. The first error was already presented through the acts and words of James himself. James 2:20 creates two impossibilities: (1) What is the definition of "good" works? (2) What is "good" faith for a Christian believer? Remember the Book of James was composed to address the various problems and confusions within the Christian movement and community during this early stage of development.
The thesis: The impossibility to emulate Jesus and therefore it is impossible to objectify(worship) Jesus.
* Jesus actions, "good works" to emulate, are limited to a specific era on the historical timeline. However, the "Golden Rule" is expressed in Matthew 7:12 (There is a possibility that Kant's idea derived from this specific verse and other verses in the New Testament canon). However, there are other "acts" of Jesus which limits the universalizability of the said "acts".
The verse which describes the 'objectification of Jesus' rule - The Gospel of John 14:23.
The verses which describes the 'historical limitation' of the above rule - Matthew 5:38-48, Matthew 6:19, Matthew 6:24, Matthew 18:16-18, and Matthew 19:21-30. This should not be a surprise all of the evidence derive from the first "gospel" as the next proceding "gospels" seem to repeat or edit out the presented verses.
* The next problem becomes apparent: the revision of the "gospel", by Paul, as he introduces new terms and phrases to initiate dialogue and corrections.
The terms: "dispensation" and "mystery" were often used by Paul to introduce a "new doctrine" into the collective "gospel".
The verses: Colossians 1:25-27, Ephesians 1:9-10, Ephesians 3:1-3, 1st Corinthians 9:17, 1st Corinthians 15:51, Romans 2:16, Romans 11:25, Romans 16:17, and Romans 16:25, 2nd Timothy 2:8, and 2nd Timothy 3:10.
Observation: If Jesus' actual "acts" and words are not completely followed then why worship Jesus? Why revise? Why edit? Why not follow his actual words? Jesus is supposed to be supernatural.
* A dialectical interaction should then never exist within the New Testament canon. "Dialectical" is meant as opposing opinions or forces creating a new synthesis or formation.
The verse which exposes the dialectical contradiction, the dialectical primer, within the New Testament canon: 2nd Timothy 3:16-17.
The dialectical contradictions: 1st Corinthian 8:1-13, Acts 15:19-20, Acts 21:18-25, Revelation 2:14 and Revelation 2:20.
The dialectical evidence of conflict between two forces concerning the consumption of foods sacrificed to idols: James 4:1, James 4:11-12, Titus 1:10-16, Galatians 2:12, and 1st Corinthians 15:32.
Observation: The absence of Jesus' opinion and advice concerning the 'foods sacrificed to idols' is evidence of a flaw concerning this particular Projected Agent.
* The last evidence is a historical manifestation flaw of the objectification concerning the Projected Agent called Jesus of Nazareth.
The fallacy of slavery: Ephesians 6:5-9, Colossians 4:1, 1st Timothy 6:1-3, and Luke 12:45-48.
Observation: Not only have humanity witnessed slavery by Christians but also the crusades. "Usury" or financial interest was also followed(Revelation 18:6). There is an absence of Jesus' words against slavery and its mandate for its complete removal. What happened? Why hasn't Paul received a 'divine command' from Jesus concerning this issue? Why hasn't Paul foreseen the removal of such a practice? Why hasn't Paul forced the issue for its complete removal? The reason is because Paul had falsely predicted the return of Jesus(1st Corinthians 7:26-29).
Conclusion: The objectification(worship) of Jesus has led to disastrous consequences throughout the history of Christianity rather than the obeying of the literal words or 'divine commands' by Jesus of Nazareth. The experience of Christians and Christianity to the Alienation of Jesus has exposed several contradictions and absurdities. There is an absence of Jesus concerning early and future issues concerning the Christian community.
The above has lead to three obvious results:
( 1 ) It is impossible to emulate Jesus of Nazareth.
( 2 ) It is impossible to objectify Jesus because he is proven to be 'Human' rather than "divine".
( 3 ) Jesus of Nazareth never resurrected and will not return. The Edict of Milan has sealed such a return.

( 4 ) Jesus of Nazareth was a social revolutionary who was executed by Roman authorities. Paul, James, and many others decided years later to create a fictional Jesus with supernatural qualities towards the Gentile population.
*( 3 ) The third result could be confirmed concerning the role of the 'foods sacrificed to idols in the Roman marketplace' as this issue was resolved by human beings years later.
If a neutral creator exist it will be because of the neutral creator's attribute of being an unknown Projected Agent. Therefore, sentient beings throughout the universe would be classified in the opposite spectrum as "known" Projected Agents because they exert "positive" and "negative" forces. The neutral creator is "unknown" because there is a 50% probability of the creator's existence and the neutral creator is "neutral". Even the words of Paul himself has shown that many during his era may have thought of the previous proposed hypothesis in a different manner - Acts 17:22-24.

The possible existence of a neutral creator as an acting agent and the universe(nature) as being a reacting agent refutes the notion of First (Fixed) Cause and all of Thomas Aquinas' five cosmological arguments: 1. Unmoved Mover, 2. First (Fixed) Cause, 3. Contingency, 4. Excellency, and 5. The Harmony of Nature.

The above formulae by St. Thomas Aquinas is not 100% proven because of the refutation concerning the New Testament canon. This is the reason why it is flawed. Furthermore, the only substance existing in or on the timeline of 'cause and effect' would be the universe(nature) itself and not the possible Projected Agent called the 'Neutral Creator'. In other words; the creator, as a neutral acting agent, exist alongside the universe(nature). Moreover, the neutral creator and the universe(nature) are both neutral.

The Anthropomorphism of a possible Creator:

*(4) The fourth result explains the creation of a supernatural or superman Jesus. The result was enacted by the Christian leadership for the survival of the Christian movement among the other various Jewish-Messianic movements. It was Paul, as a catalyst of change, which introduced a new doctrine for the expansion of membership expressed through the book of Romans - Romans chapter eleven. There is evidence through the Gospel of Matthew showing "dialectical" conflict through Matthew 10:6 vs. Matthew 26:13. It is highly probable that Matthew added the later verse, Matthew 26:13, when Paul introduced the new doctrine:

"Matthew also issued a written Gospel among the Hebrews in their own dialect while Peter and Paul were preaching at Rome and laying the foundations of the church." - Irenaeus, Adv. Haer. 3.1.1

The definition of Anthropomorphism is to humanize projected objects impossible to acquire and attempt to establish an interaction with the said projected object. In the previous setting of the proposed definition, Christianity has anthropormorphized two things: The Temple and Jesus (Revelation 21:22).

What is the historical evidence of the previous proposition?

The author, Rebecca Gray in Prophetic Figures in Late Second Temple Jewish Palestine: The Evidence from Josephus says:

" Finally, we shall see that one or two of the purity practices mentioned by Josephus were observed by priests and lay-persons alike; even these practices, however, suggest that the stricter group of Essenes treated their community, in some respects, as if it were the temple.
   Priests on duty in the Jerusalem temple wore linen breeches and, on special occasions, white vestments, also made of linen. The linen loin-cloths worn by the Essenes may not have been exactly like the breeches worn by priests, but they are similar enough, and unusual enough, to suggest that the Essenes were imitating, priestly dress in this respect. (pg. 87)

To understand further the phenomenon of anthropomorphism imagine that "evil" derives from the fallen angel of Satan. The previous is an issue with Judaism and as much with Christianity. As for Islam, there is a bit of a difference. "Satan" is not a fallen angel but a Jinn(spiritual being) from Earth and parts of the Qu'ran, the holy book for Muslims, speaks of "evil" deriving from the actions of individuals themselves. The previous two are incorrect concerning the personification of "evil" and the later imitated several fallacies deriving from the previous two.

The Biblical evidence in agreement with Rebecca Gray's research is located in Acts 2:46 and Ephesians 2:21. There are also examples in the book of Acts which presents a form of communistic idealism which was later expressed by Karl Marx: Acts 4:32-37, Acts 5:1-11, and Acts 6:1-3. Paul's creation of the Christian projected agent - Jesus(Christ) of Nazareth - transformed the relationship between Jews and Gentiles(non-Jews). It was Paul's introduction of a transformative figure which united the previous factions into one new entity(Ephesians 2:15). Of course, explained with the soon appearing projected agent which never occured(1st Corinthians 7:16-31). Again, the reason why Paul had done this was to eliminate the years of antagonism between Jews and non-Jews in the region therefore removing the need for a physical Temple. In the case of Karl Marx, the projected image or agent is the state. Marx' thought was a copying of Hegel's concept of the transformative role of the state entity. Karl Marx presented a material projected agent which could interact with the individual(acting agent). While Paul, earlier introduced a "spiritual" or immaterial projected agent. The former highly probable with imperfect results and the later impossible to produce or emulate. Furthermore, both are flawed projected agents. However, there is a difference between the said two. Marx' doctrine was more realistic in contrast to Paul's doctrine because Paul's doctrine has to be believed without question while Marx' was based on trial and error which leaves room for change or evolution.

The spiritual alienation to the Temple is given:

( 1 ) To remove the "cycle"(wormwood) of purification for the physical Temple, everytime it is destroyed, the new doctrines were created by Paul and then embraced by the rest of the Christian leadership.
( 2 ) The Temple is no longer relevant because its relevance negates Christianity.
( 3 ) The Temple and Jesus are objects, immaterial or "spiritual", which no longer could be physically destroyed.
( 4 ) The Temple and Jesus are both preserved, "spiritually", through the Pauline doctrines of "Body of Christ" and the supposed resurrection of Jesus.

The proposed model which expresses the previous notion of christian 'alienation':

Christians(physical material existence) <--> Jesus(physical then "spiritual") <--> Temple("spiritual" immaterial existence).

If we separate and form the common denominator then the pursuit of happiness is universal among all mankind and sentient beings(James 2:17). The pursuit of happiness is to remove the alienation from our positive attributes which resides in all of our projected agents and only through "good" acts and "good" works its liberation is highly probable. The previous variable or factor exist within the Christian's projected agent.

Tuesday, July 3, 2012

Chapter 24 - The Creative Force of the Universe ?

Chapter 24 - The Creative Force of the Universe ?

The universe is filled with various energies some known and others unknown. What is clear is the existence of "ghosts" and other anomalies. If the Bible is proven to be flawed then what could explain these energies and what theories could be provided to explain these anomalies? The answer may be in the existence of a creative force which could be derived from either nature itself or a neutral creator which created the universe.

The subject would derive from a natural rather than a supernatural ontological observation. The introduction of the term - Ultranaturalism - which describes the possibility of the negation of supernatural phenomenon and the inclusion or manipulation of natural forces. In other words, the introduction of a third category alongside the two known categories: natural and supposed supernatural phenomena.

If the human body may have the properties to recreate natural forces from a possible prime creator then these categories are highly probable:

1) Absorb phenomena

2) Repel phenomena

3) Deliver phenomena

4) Direct phenomena

5) Self-Manifest phenomena

The previous five categories are teleological evidence from creativity deriving from a possible creator to creatures. In other words, deriving from a possible prime creator.

The primary evidence must first be derived from the used natural source - The Bible. The ontological observation is to extract verses from the Bible itself. The term ontological is derived from the part of the term which means "Be" and it is "onto". The previous derives from several verses from the Qu'ran, another religious book filled with natural observations rather than supernatural manifestations; the verses are 2:117, 3:47, 6:73, 16:40, 19:35, 36:82, and 40:68. The Arabic phrase is "Kun fa-yakunu". It may have been made out of the cosmological debate between religious scholars, between the interaction of Christian and Islamic scholars, where the phrase - Onto - derived from.

The above five observations are partially explained by John Haywood Hick's "soma pneumatikon" or spiritual body which is derived from 1st Corinthians 15:44-45 :

"It is sown a natural body; it is raised a spiritual body. There is a natural body, and there is a spiritual body".

In contrast to John Haywood Hick's "soma pneumatikon" is the materialist approach. The materialist reaction is "corporealism" which is defined as "The doctrine which describes humans as material beings". The previous is body-soul distinction and the latter is the mind-body problem. The debate within the mind-body mechanism also includes Epiphenomenalism which states the mind is a property of the body and exist alongside the body. Epiphenomenalism derives from Substance Dualism that hold the mind and body are separate substances. The previous derives from the observation of Rene Descartes concerning the three substances in the universe:

1) The Eternal Substance, God or a Creator.

2) His Creation in terms of Mind.

3) His Creation in terms of Matter.

The inference is made to combine the previous observations from the previous five categories. The new categorization is from dualism and materialism proposed as "Substance Synthesis" which include the mechanism of soul/spirit, mind and body. It is actually the starting point at materialism to expand into the immaterial or the realm of incorporealism. In other words, it describes the material body as the starting point embracing epiphenomenalism which recognizes the mind and expands into the realm of incorporealism. The realm of incorporealism derives from a material term and therefore recognizes the soul/spirit functions as the "universal recorder". The new term - universal recorder - is a materialist description for "soul" and/or "spirit". Therefore, the explanation is from an ontological source and it evolved into a teleological (materialist) observation. The final result is the definition of the metaphysical condition.

"Universal Recorder"ßàMIND ßà Body (Substance Synthesis of all three)

The previous diagram is the proposed mechanism of Ultranaturalism. The term is from the materialist perspective which is based more on empirical data than idealism. The three Rene Descartes’ proposal contains at least one point which could not be proven to describe the interaction between the body and the mind. Point number one states the "Eternal Substance" is god or a creator. The proposal of “Substance Synthesis” is to prove whether or not the “Eternal Substance” is from a creator or from the material beings themselves.

The materialist could not disprove the existence of the "universal recorder" because of ghosts and other phenomena. The theists, or followers of religions, could not disprove the materialist approach because of the conditions of Alzheimer's disease and the coma's argument. The argument for the existence of the "universal recorder" is based on the input and output functions of the material body (Functionalism) and is not an expression of reductionism or pure materialism. The five known senses are the input for the material body while the mind translates the information for output. The known cases of clairvoyance, telepathy and precognition is the interaction of the mind with another non-body or another mind. The previous non-body is preserved while the physical body is eventually abolished.

The verse; Acts 2:29, states clearly the body of every human being, with exception of Jesus of Nazareth, is buried until the day of "rapture" (1st Thessalonians 4:13-17). The natural observation made by Paul may have been proven incorrect but its partial observation is true. John also agrees with Paul on this subject matter in John 3:13. The previous would mean that the function of "rapture" was to replace old bodies with new ones deriving from the "universal recorder". The explanation by Paul is missing an important factor: is there a difference between "soul" and "spirit"?

According to Paul's letter, "soul" and "spirit" are separate substances (Romans chapter eight and Romans 13:1). The previous observation was also recognized by John (1st John 4:3) in contrast to an actual anti-Christ (Revelation chapter thirteen) with a soul and body. In the material, the "universal recorder" is both soul and spirit. The doctrine of material corporealism states that when the brain and body dies the "soul" dies by default. Therefore, the abolishment of the body/soul evidently leaves a residue and it is the "spirit". The previous term is from a theistic perspective while the term "universal recorder" is from the materialistic perspective.

The manifestations of the five observed phenomena validates the existence of the "universal recorder" which interprets input from the surrounding material environment or expansive universe. The experiences on the "universal recorder" leaves a residue of negative and positive charges. The existence of ghosts, apparitions and other similar phenomenon proves the existence of the "universal recorder". Each of these charges of the "universal recorder" exists in every society. The previous furthers the case for emergent materialism, property dualism and supervenience. In other words, the mental properties of a being are a further extension of the physical properties of the said being. The biblical example of this phenomenon is the interaction between Elijah and Elisha in 2nd Kings 2:9, if it is true? For there is evidence that a transfer of energy was initiated between Elijah and Elisha because of the ability of healing (2nd Kings 6:17). However, there is evidence of absurdity concerning the healing of a body of water near Jericho (2nd Kings 2:15-22). Therefore, the transfer energy and cases surrounding these events were interpreted by observers as the workings of "god". The previous phenomenon was then termed as the workings of the "Holy Spirit"(Ruh al-Qadesh) or "Holy Ghost". The truth is that each case, if it is true, could be from an ultranatural source rather then from a supposed supernatural source. The origin of such description of "Holy Spirit" derives from the struggle to rebuild the second Temple in Ezra 1:5 and Nehemiah 9:20. Year later, Paul expressed the group consciousness formation in Acts 4:32.

Therefore; the importance of maintaining positive charges from the "universal recorder" derives from positive collectivism. The previous is known through the past conflict between the Roman Empire and the early Christian community which are both collectivistic entities. The mention of "the spirit of anti-Christ" and "the spirit of Jesus" was mentioned by both Paul and John despite their difference on the subject of 'Foods offered to idols'. The spirit of anti-Christ is the spirit of Nero which continued with the Roman emperor Vespasian who directed the destruction of the Temple and the city of Jerusalem in A.D. 70 through general Titus. The cessation of the spirit of anti-Christ ended in A.D. 313 through the co-sponsored Edict of Milan by Constantine. The cessation of the spirit of anti-Christ in A.D. 313 was enacted because the persecutions ended and the liberties of the Christians or their natural rights were restored. Therefore, the "mark of the Beast" and the "seal of God", metaphysical symbols within the Book of Revelation, also ceased to exist when the persecutions ended. The metaphorical marks were intertwined with the existence of idols in the Roman marketplace which enforced the ideology of the Roman Empire.

The mention of atoms or various charges being released into nature was taught by Epicurus, the originator of the early Epicurean materialist school of thought, who promoted the pursuit of hedonistic pleasure. The previous mention of "pleasure" was a constant attack by Paul and early Christian leaders. Nevertheless, the mention of such a term has been misconstrued to mean the pursuit of every type of pleasure (Acts 17:18, 1st Corinthians 1:26, 1st Corinthians 6:16 and 1st Corinthians 15:39). Epicurus identified the pursuit of pleasure with good and evil with pain. Therefore, the school of epicureanism pursued a sensous and profligate life. For example, one of Epicurus' letter to Menoecus says: "Infinite time contains no greater pleasure than limited time, if one measures by Reason the limits of pleasure". Epicureanism is an example of ancient or early materialism in comparison to the modern materialism of corporealism. Epicurus also lived between B.C. 341 to B.C. 271, a time when Hellenism was introduced to the inhabitants of Jerusalem and the Judean region. The previous events are so profound that Paul mentions followers of Epicurus as "Epicureans" and even mentions the "stoics" by name - Acts 17:18.

Even though, both Paul and John gave false predictions and false "prophecies", the concept of the "spirit" and "soul" evidently continues. Is it possible that John, within the book of Revelation, was actually referring to the return of the spirit of Jesus rather than an actual physical return? If this is the case then the book of Revelation ended in A.D. 313 with the imposition of a flawed theonomy. Furthermore, it proves that many of the so-called 'Gnostic Gospels' are correct by spiritualizing the return of Jesus.

The "universal recorder" of all entities and beings continue after the abolishment of the physical body. The phenomenon of the apparent so-called "demonic" possessions of physical bodies is a prime example of the universalizability of the said universal charges. The point is many societies were successful in the removal of such supposed negative entities or negative charges. For instance, there exist Muslim and Jewish exorcists who have successfully removed such entities from physical bodies. The previous proves that all beings possessed these abilities despite their various religious affiliations.

Therefore, the previous proves the existence of a creative force in the universe which manipulates material forces within nature or the physical environment. The various charges, derived from the "universal recorder", are collectively left on the physical environment which affects the overall biological and social evolution of the remaining entities.

The universe as a neutral force has imposed its neutral will throughout. Therefore, all beings existing in the universe exhibit two energies: negative and positive. The two mentioned energies are known through the collective interpretation deriving from the acts of the sole acting agent or the individual. Therefore, sentient beings enact two types of will to power: negative and positive. Therefore, will to power is will to change. Will-power is the initial point until it is translated through various actions observed as "will to power".

The nature of the universe produces neutral beings with no sense of morality. In other words, sentient beings were once in amoral existence or condition. Sentiency, the highest evolved form of being, was ushered into a species through will to power rather than the will to survive. Therefore, the spectacle of change through will-power is social evolution. Hence, social evolution is not perceived by amoral beings.

Immorality is the absence of morality therefore it does not exist by itself. In other words, it is impossible to be existing as an "immoral" being after experiencing the sense of morality. However, it is possible to be "moral" or a moral acting agent in the universe(nature).

'The Whole Synthetic Being' is finally theorized from the above observation concerning the interaction of the neutral universe(nature) and any living sentient species. The new term symbolizes the interaction of three parts which composes a being: "universal recorder", mind and physical body. The interactions and inter-relationship describes the overall being as synthetic. Therefore, expressing the existence of a being which is both physical and immaterial.

All beings are synthetic beings whether following a religion or the absence of one. The importance or the true willing force or drive of all beings is to enact positivity and negate negativity. Is there an example within the Bible which expresses the previous? In the New Testament canon, there is a collective of negative energy beings which coagulated into one entity called "Legion" (Luke 8:29-30 and Mark 5:8-10). The authenticity of the story may be in doubt but its narrative is a good example of the power of energies from the "universal recorder" expressed by the writer himself. Furthermore, the term "spirit" was used rather than "soul" and this differentiation should be noted. The Gospel of Mark presented the proper context for both Gospels presenting this entity as a collection of negative charges from a previous or current era. One verse, in the Old Testament - Exodus 23:2, gives a description of collective evil which after its duration may become a collection of negative energies. Therefore, the proposition is given: collective good by any and all segment of humanity should be promoted as much as possible. In other words; the application of collective and individual good actions, despite their allegiance to a religion or the absence of a religion, should be promoted as much as possible.

All beings are also followers of various belief systems. These systems contain both good and bad followers (and energies) which exposes the fallacy of each system. The importance of the "positive collective" becomes paramount for all societies hence the rationale for utilitarianism which rose out from years of social evolution. Therefore, collectivism is a natural by-product from the formation of the tribe to the eventual state entity. Furthermore, the formation of the corporate entity, is rather a recent collective phenomenon within the leadership evolution of the tribe. The previous description of the tribe and its historical manifestations would not explain the dynamics of the "universal recorder". However, the development of such structures affected the brain psychology of the human race on Earth. The question arises has the manipulations of materials, over the years by the human race, affected the mind-body relationship and therefore the "universal recorder"? Therefore, has the manipulation of materials guided the moral code structure? Has the two previous questions finally proved the existence of a creator or simply a creative force without a creator?

The previous questions could be answered by evaluating the behavior of the "universal recorder". The answer is soundly in favor of the creative force but has not concluded in the negation of a creator.

The above conclusion was deducted through the conflict between two philosophies: The Pauline dispensationalist view and the philosophical materialism of Epicureanism. The previous ideological conflict has also exposed the meaning of “thorn in the flesh” stated in 2nd Corinthians 12:7.

Paul’s contextual argument presenting “dispensationalism” is not only expressing a new timeline but also an ideological terminology presenting a clash of ideas. What is the body of evidence presenting Paul as an anti-thesis to the followers of Epicurus?

1st Corinthians 2:14 state the existence of “The Natural Man” providing evidence of a clear ideological conflict. It is also stated in a direct manner in Colossians 2:8 where the verse contains “philosophy” and “traditions of Men”. The books or letters addressed to the congregation in Corinth retells the philosophical conflict between two cultures. 

1.      1st Corinthians 5:5 retells the importance of the spirit over the Body or “flesh”.

2.      1st Corinthians 6:15-16 identifies the opposing philosophy existing in the Roman imperial system. The Roman Empire is described as “Harlot” (Revelation 17:5).

3.      1st Corinthians 7:28 is under the subject of marriage and single life. Paul then tries to refute the carnal desires within the body through the expected return of their messiah. In other words, Christian spiritualism over philosophical materialism.

4.      1st Corinthians 10:18 is primary evidence that Paul neither expected nor predicted the formation of Israel in 1948. The verse is expressing, clearly, that the Jewish Temple priests are in alliance with the Roman imperial system (Revelation 16:13). In other words, the formation of Israel is a natural by-product of material history because of the expiration of the book of Revelation in A.D. 313 through the rule of Constantine. The verse, 1st Corinthians 10:18, also explains the meaning of Matthew 12:18-21. The Matthew passage is expressing the destruction of the Roman imperial system copying the previous destruction of the Babylonian empire (Isaiah 42:1-13) as recompense for the execution of Jesus of Nazareth their messiah.

5.      1st Corinthians 15:38-44 explains a review and further refutation of the prevailing philosophical materialistic system expressed by many Roman aristocrats. It continues with the conclusion of the “rapture” which is a hypothetical event expressing victory over the “flesh” and the ancient philosophical Roman system (1st Corinthian 15:45-52 and 1st Thessalonians 4:17).

6.      2nd Corinthians 12:7 expresses the supposed defeat of the philosophical materialistic system by the Christian spiritual system. In other words, “Flesh” symbolizes the philosophical system of materialism which is both Stoicism and Epicureanism. The “thorn” is the personage of John, the writer of the book of Revelation and the book of Hebrews, deriving his knowledge from the rose called God/Jesus of Nazareth. The previous verses expresses the identity of John and the previous points leads to the conclusion that “flesh” is at times describing the Roman philosophical system. Most importantly, it describes Paul's jealousy of John's supposed abilities. For Paul, the "jealousy" derives from Satan and this is the meaning of the verse.

7.      Epicurus of Samos said: "The flesh receives as unlimited the limits of pleasure; and to provide it requires unlimited time. But the mind, intellectually grasping what the end and limit of the flesh is, and banishing the terrors of the future, procures a complete and perfect life, and we have no longer any need of unlimited time. Nevertheless the mind does not shun pleasure, and even when circumstances make death imminent, the mind does not lack enjoyment of the best life."

The previous development has shown that through the conflict of the two philosophes there comes the construction describing the interaction between spiritualism and materialism. The supposed prime creator is the source creator of the creative force and immaterial flow in the universe? The “universal recorder” therefore has an “on and off” switch which could be activated and deactivated. For example, the activities of psychics and other mediums (Balaam of Numbers chapters twenty-two and twenty-four). The “soul” is the living material force with the body and the “spirit” is the living immaterial force. Furthermore, will-power are various options acted upon which therefore creates various charges through the interaction with materials in the universe or nature. In other words, when the physical body interacts with the universe or environment it produces charges. There is no such thing as destiny or the recurrence of the"soul" as this expresses a fixed timeline. Therefore, will-power or will-to-power is an extension of free-will or free choice.

Soul ßàSpirit ßàBody

When the Body perishes, so does the soul leaving only the spirit. Through the experiences of the interaction of materials the “universal recorder” retains these experiences which are interpreted by the brain and transferred to the soul/spirit (Universal Recorder). Therefore, only one aspect of the “universal recorder” lives on and it explains the previous name: Spirit / Universal Recorder.

The departure or an inclusion to David Humes’ impressions principle is the introduction of “Natural Imprints”. In contrast to impressions, “natural imprints” are the various charges left after the physical death of an entity or sentient being or being in general. These imprints are the by-product of the interaction between material forces and the "universal recorder" substance within the physical body. These natural imprints exist with the “universal recorder” and therefore experiences could be shared by activated beings across the expanse of the universe. For example, the struggles and various lives of past and present civilizations could be shared across the universe. In other words; “natural imprints” are experiences either presently, in the past, or in the future. The charges existing within the universe and/or a planet contribute to the evolution of all beings within the universe.

The previous begs the question of whether it is appropriate to promote the existence of a materially just society? An idea which was not directly promoted by the material philosophical system of Epicureanism which concentrated on the individualistic point of reference. However, directly addressed by Karl Marx through the promotion of sole state control. Karl Marx also expunged the idea of property dualism and concentrated on the material existence of beings. The only option is the alternative of a new utilitarian system which deals with material justice in contrast with material injustice which produces negative "spiritual" charges. In other words, universal spiritualism should be assisted by a system of material justice within a social utilitarian dynamic. So, what is “utilitarianism”?

"The creed which accepts as the foundation of morals, Utility, or the Greatest Happiness Principle, holds that actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness, wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness. By happiness is intended pleasure, and the absence of pain; by unhappiness, pain, and the privation of pleasure ". (Chapter 2 - What Utilitarianism Is, The Principle of Utility, Utilitarianism by John Stuart Mill)

In the New Testament canon there is a utilitarian contradiction: Paul’s Ephesians 2:8-9 and James 2:17-18,26. While the “Golden Rule” is expressed in the Gospel of Matthew itself (Matthew 7:12). Therefore, the true conflict is to seek material justice through the negation of material injustice and the conclusion is happiness. In other words, the pursuit of material justice is the true attainment of happiness.

Chapter 23 - The 50% Probability Principle

Chapter 23 - The 50% Probability Principle

The previous chapters discussed the invalidity of the Christian concept of a creator. The concept has been refuted through several topics and through the presented main evidence - The Book of Revelation. The current chapter will then be evaluating and providing evidence for two options:

(1) The possibility of a neutral creator.
(2) The possibility of the absence of a creator. In other words, no creator.

St. Thomas Aquinas' presentation on a possible Creator, the quinque viae, will also be evaluated briefly through evidence. Then St. Augustine of Hippo's free-will argument will also be discussed and evaluated. Blaise Pascal's wager will be presented with an alternative theory.
The evidence from the Bible and the Book of Revelation will be given first. The reason for the evidence from these sources is to suggest that the supposed writers of the Bible are considered natural writers despite the seemingly "religious" overtones. Therefore; as natural writers, deriving their source of inspiration from a natural source rather than from a supernatural source, it would be reasonable to use these sources. Therefore, the Bible is an example and source of social evolution rather than deriving from a supernatural source. Furthermore, it would suggest that these said sources contain both errors and facts. In other words, the sources mentioned are imperfect or fallible rather than absolutely perfect or infallible. The prime question is: Revelation over Reason or Reason over Revelation? I prefer the later as the proper conclusion.

Examples below from the Bible itself:

Exodus 15:2 - " The Lord is a man of war: the Lord is his name".

Isaiah 45:7 - "I form the light, and create darkness: I make peace, and create evil: I the Lord do all these things".

Deuteronomy 32:39 - "See now that I, even I, am he, and there is no god with me: I kill, and I make alive; I wound, and I heal: neither is there any that can deliver out of my hand".

Revelation 6:8 - "And I looked and behold a pale horse: and his name that sat on him was Death, and Hell followed with him. And power was given unto them over the fourth part of the earth, to kill with sword, and with hunger, and with death, and with the beasts of the earth".

Evidence from Thomas Aquinas' Summa Theologica The Five Ways :

1.      The Argument of the Unmoved Mover
Prima autem et manifestior via est, quæ sumitur ex parte motus. Certum est enim, et sensu constat, aliqua moveri in hoc mundo. Omne autem quod movetur, ab alio movetur. Nihil enim movetur, nisi secundum quod est in potentia ad illud ad quod movetur, movet autem aliquid secundum quod est actu. Movere enim nihil aliud est quam educere aliquid de potentia in actum, de potentia autem non potest aliquid reduci in actum, nisi per aliquod ens in actu, sicut calidum in actu, ut ignis, facit lignum, quod est calidum in potentia, esse actu calidum, et per hoc movet et alterat ipsum. Non autem est possibile ut idem sit simul in actu et potentia secundum idem, sed solum secundum diversa, quod enim est calidum in actu, non potest simul esse calidum in potentia, sed est simul frigidum in potentia. Impossibile est ergo quod, secundum idem et eodem modo, aliquid sit movens et motum, vel quod moveat seipsum. Omne ergo quod movetur, oportet ab alio moveri. Si ergo id a quo movetur, moveatur, oportet et ipsum ab alio moveri et illud ab alio. Hic autem non est procedere in infinitum, quia sic non esset aliquod primum movens; et per consequens nec aliquod aliud movens, quia moventia secunda non movent nisi per hoc quod sunt mota a primo movente, sicut baculus non movet nisi per hoc quod est motus a manu. Ergo necesse est devenire ad aliquod primum movens, quod a nullo movetur, et hoc omnes intelligunt Deum.
[The first and more manifest way is the argument from motion. It is certain, and evident to our senses, that in the world some things are in motion. Now whatever is in motion is put in motion by another, for nothing can be in motion except it is in potentiality to that towards which it is in motion; whereas a thing moves inasmuch as it is in act. For motion is nothing else than the reduction of something from potentiality to actuality. But nothing can be reduced from potentiality to actuality, except by something in a state of actuality. Thus that which is actually hot, as fire, makes wood, which is potentially hot, to be actually hot, and thereby moves and changes it. Now it is not possible that the same thing should be at once in actuality and potentiality in the same respect, but only in different respects. For what is actually hot cannot simultaneously be potentially hot; but it is simultaneously potentially cold. It is therefore impossible that in the same respect and in the same way a thing should be both mover and moved, i.e. that it should move itself. Therefore, whatever is in motion must be put in motion by another. If that by which it is put in motion be itself put in motion, then this also must needs be put in motion by another, and that by another again. But this cannot go on to infinity, because then there would be no first mover, and, consequently, no other mover; seeing that subsequent movers move only inasmuch as they are put in motion by the first mover; as the staff moves only because it is put in motion by the hand. Therefore it is necessary to arrive at a first mover, put in motion by no other; and this everyone understands to be God.]

Evidence against the Unmoved Mover theory: The Sol star or sun is both mover and moved. The behaviour of the galaxy creates the conditions of its composition and creation. There also different types of galaxies with stars in them. Galaxies also collide with each other and some are not spiral types. Galaxies are also moving in several directions. Is it possible that the movement of galaxies are infinite rather than originating from one Unmoved Mover? If there was one "bang" is it possible that chemical conditions created the bang rather than a mover? The formation of ice is a prime example where chemical conditions changes water into ice by simply lowering the temperature in a controlled environment. All of the previous information was gathered years after the statement by Thomas Aquinas which is an example of social evolution. No object moves itself unless it has free-will or guided by another object but this would mean that the Unmoved Mover has been identified in possessing a quality of the created: free-will. For instance, "the fire and wood" analogy mentioned by Thomas Aquinas. These objects has no free-will but it is guided by another agent - the sentient human being. The question arises: Objects which contain free-will derived from objects without free-will? For example, earlier chemicals evolved into human beings on Earth. The variable of "free-will"(from natural evolution) refutes the Unmoved Mover theory. Finally, thinking robots or artificial life-forms are made from computer chips which does not contain "free-will".

2. The Argument of the First Cause
Secunda via est ex ratione causæ efficientis. Invenimus enim in istis sensibilibus esse ordinem causarum efficientium, nec tamen invenitur, nec est possibile, quod aliquid sit causa efficiens sui ipsius; quia sic esset prius seipso, quod est impossibile. Non autem est possibile quod in causis efficientibus procedatur in infinitum. Quia in omnibus causis efficientibus ordinatis, primum est causa medii, et medium est causa ultimi, sive media sint plura sive unum tantum, remota autem causa, removetur effectus, ergo, si non fuerit primum in causis efficientibus, non erit ultimum nec medium. Sed si procedatur in infinitum in causis efficientibus, non erit prima causa efficiens, et sic non erit nec effectus ultimus, nec causæ efficientes mediæ, quod patet esse falsum. Ergo est necesse ponere aliquam causam efficientem primam, quam omnes Deum nominant.
[The second way is from the nature of the efficient cause. In the world of sense we find there is an order of efficient causes. There is no case known (neither is it, indeed, possible) in which a thing is found to be the efficient cause of itself; for so it would be prior to itself, which is impossible. Now in efficient causes it is not possible to go on to infinity, because in all efficient causes following in order, the first is the cause of the intermediate cause, and the intermediate is the cause of the ultimate cause, whether the intermediate cause be several, or only one. Now to take away the cause is to take away the effect. Therefore, if there be no first cause among efficient causes, there will be no ultimate, nor any intermediate cause. But if in efficient causes it is possible to go on to infinity, there will be no first efficient cause, neither will there be an ultimate effect, nor any intermediate efficient causes; all of which is plainly false. Therefore it is necessary to admit a first efficient cause, to which everyone gives the name of God.]

Evidence against the First Cause theory: There is no first cause, there is just cause and effect. The cycle of the four seasons on Earth is a prime example of the very highly probable and natural conclusion of an infinite cause and effect. The supposition of "Hell" and "Heaven", if believed, validates the idea of an infinite cause and effect. In other words, the belief of predestination and value of the afterlife validates infinite cause and effect. Finally, there is no first cause through natural and supposed supernatural examples. Even though; by natural means, it could be deducted that there was a "big bang" for the universe, the said event could not validate the existence of a creator. The suggestion of the term - First - would suggest a creator which could not be proven and therefore it is just "cause and effect".

3. The Argument from Contingency
Tertia via est sumpta ex possibili et necessario, quæ talis est. Invenimus enim in rebus quædam quæ sunt possibilia esse et non esse, cum quædam inveniantur generari et corrumpi, et per consequens possibilia esse et non esse. Impossibile est autem omnia quæ sunt, talia esse, quia quod possibile est non esse, quandoque non est. Si igitur omnia sunt possibilia non esse, aliquando nihil fuit in rebus. Sed si hoc est verum, etiam nunc nihil esset, quia quod non est, non incipit esse nisi per aliquid quod est; si igitur nihil fuit ens, impossibile fuit quod aliquid inciperet esse, et sic modo nihil esset, quod patet esse falsum. Non ergo omnia entia sunt possibilia, sed oportet aliquid esse necessarium in rebus. Omne autem necessarium vel habet causam suæ necessitatis aliunde, vel non habet. Non est autem possibile quod procedatur in infinitum in necessariis quæ habent causam suæ necessitatis, sicut nec in causis efficientibus, ut probatum est. Ergo necesse est ponere aliquid quod sit per se necessarium, non habens causam necessitatis aliunde, sed quod est causa necessitatis aliis, quod omnes dicunt Deum.
[The third way is taken from possibility and necessity, and runs thus. We find in nature things that are possible to be and not to be, since they are found to be generated, and to corrupt, and consequently, they are possible to be and not to be. But it is impossible for these always to exist, for that which is possible not to be at some time is not. Therefore, if everything is possible not to be, then at one time there could have been nothing in existence. Now if this were true, even now there would be nothing in existence, because that which does not exist only begins to exist by something already existing. Therefore, if at one time nothing was in existence, it would have been impossible for anything to have begun to exist; and thus even now nothing would be in existence – which is absurd. Therefore, not all beings are merely possible, but there must exist something the existence of which is necessary. But every necessary thing either has its necessity caused by another, or not. Now it is impossible to go on to infinity in necessary things which have their necessity caused by another, as has been already proved in regard to efficient causes. Therefore we cannot but postulate the existence of some being having of itself its own necessity, and not receiving it from another, but rather causing in others their necessity. This all men speak of as God.]

Evidence against the Contingency theory: St. Anselm of Canterbury in his treatise, Cur Deus Homo or Why God became Man, offered his opinion on this subject. He presented the 'Greatest Conceivable Being' or GCB theory. The GCB theory is to suggest that when a person imagines a being that being is neither created nor destroyed then this being is God or the creator. Gaunilo, his opposing contemporary of the era, offered an interesting rebuttal: Imagine the 'Greatest Conceivable Island'. The obvious becomes tantamount to a natural "sin": the imagination could be wrong or theories are flawed. In other words, just because an object is imagined does not make it a fact or true. Therefore, the 'Greatest Conceivable Being' develops into a relativistic opinion or an absurdity rather than an absolute fact. The alternative theory is to present that the origin of "free-will" derives from natural reactions rather than from 'divine' predestination. For example, the creation of the universe from an unthinking group of chemicals into a group of reacting molecules forced by natural pressure and gravity. Then these natural molecules developed into bacteria which developed naturally into other life-forms. In other words; the factor of "free-will", deriving from a natural source, refutes the GCB theory and the argument from Contigency. Let me interject a possible hypothesis: In the early phases of the universe only thinking molecules possibly existed and then sentient thinking gaseous life-forms developed before any other type of sentient thinking life-forms existed later and elsewhere. The previous interjection proves that GCB and the contingency theory, which derived from the mind or a priori, are not proven theories therefore flawed.

4.The Argument from Degree
Quarta via sumitur ex gradibus qui in rebus inveniuntur. Invenitur enim in rebus aliquid magis et minus bonum, et verum, et nobile, et sic de aliis hujusmodi. Sed magis et minus dicuntur de diversis secundum quod appropinquant diversimode ad aliquid quod maxime est, sicut magis calidum est, quod magis appropinquat maxime calido. Est igitur aliquid quod est verissimum, et optimum, et nobilissimum, et per consequens maxime ens, nam quæ sunt maxime vera, sunt maxime entia, ut dicitur II Metaphys. Quod autem dicitur maxime tale in aliquo genere, est causa omnium quæ sunt illius generis, sicut ignis, qui est maxime calidus, est causa omnium calidorum, ut in eodem libro dicitur. Ergo est aliquid quod omnibus entibus est causa esse, et bonitatis, et cujuslibet perfectionis, et hoc dicimus Deum.
[The fourth way is taken from the gradation to be found in things. Among beings there are some more and some less good, true, noble and the like. But “more” and “less” are predicated of different things, according as they resemble in their different ways something which is the maximum, as a thing is said to be hotter according as it more nearly resembles that which is hottest; so that there is something which is truest, something best, something noblest and, consequently, something which is uttermost being; for those things that are greatest in truth are greatest in being, as it is written in Metaph. ii.. Now the maximum in any genus is the cause of all in that genus; as fire, which is the maximum heat, is the cause of all hot things. Therefore there must also be something which is to all beings the cause of their being, goodness, and every other perfection; and this we call God.]

Evidence against the Degree theory: There is neither "good" nor "evil" concerning the increase of temperature because it derives from chemical reactions which do not contain free-will. The source of "good" and "evil"; in summary, derive from social evolution, social constructs and therefore natural free-will. The previous supposition will be elaborated further in later chapters. The designations of "good" and "evil" both derive from free-will or free choice from naturally thinking and sentient beings. Therefore, "good" and "evil" derive from the reactions of others(agents) as they observe and react to actions from an acting agent.
5.The Teleological Argument
Quinta via sumitur ex gubernatione rerum. Videmus enim quod aliqua quæ cognitione carent, scilicet corpora naturalia, operantur propter finem, quod apparet ex hoc quod semper aut frequentius eodem modo operantur, ut consequantur id quod est optimum; unde patet quod non a casu, sed ex intentione perveniunt ad finem. Ea autem quæ non habent cognitionem, non tendunt in finem nisi directa ab aliquo cognoscente et intelligente, sicut sagitta a sagittante. Ergo est aliquid intelligens, a quo omnes res naturales ordinantur ad finem, et hoc dicimus Deum.
[The fifth way is taken from the governance of the world. We see that things which lack intelligence, such as natural bodies, act for an end, and this is evident from their acting always, or nearly always, in the same way, so as to obtain the best result. Hence it is plain that not fortuitously, but designedly, do they achieve their end. Now whatever lacks intelligence cannot move towards an end, unless it be directed by some being endowed with knowledge and intelligence; as the arrow is shot to its mark by the archer. Therefore some intelligent being exists by whom all natural things are directed to their end; and this being we call God.]

Evidence against the Teleological argument: The reacting agents define what is "good" and "evil" therefore creating the limits and range of a sole acting agent. All the previous agents behave under a socially evolved contract or agreed evolved laws. For example; the court system, especially in the U.S., is an example of trial and error therefore enacting precedence. The collective decision by a group of individuals(reacting agents), a jury, is enacted and agreed upon. These reacting agents decides if the past acts of an individual(acting agent) is justified or unjustified. Chemicals also have laws to follow based on the natural environment or the natural laws of the universe. The existence of natural laws is a moot point on the existence of a creator or God.

St. Augustine's Fixed Cause Fallacy:

The argument presented above by Thomas Aquinas started from the observations of St.Augustine. The core of the argument could be seen by St. Augustine of Hippo through his attempted refutation against Cicero. Augusine says:
" But when Cicero denies that the order of all causes is completely fixed and perfectly known to God's foreknowledge we execrate his opinion even more than do the Stoics "(Source: City of God, Book 5 - Chapter 9).
Then Augustine continues in the following chapter - concerning God's universal providence:
" he has not left them without a harmony of their constituent parts, a kind of peace. "(Source: City of God, Book 5 - Chapter 11).
The evidence above explains two things:
(1) Thomas Aquinas five ways or argument derive from the previous observation given by St. Augustine many years earlier. The Five Ways were written between A.D.1265- A.D.1274 and St. Augustine wrote his treatise, City of God, between A.D. 413 - A.D. 430. In the presented timeline, it is clearly observed there was definitely strong influence passed on to the next scholar because of the terms and phrases used which were later borrowed.
(2) The order of the fallacy could be traced back to John, the writer of the Book of Revelation, and also these errors could be traced to the Old Testament canon or texts. The Stoics, the religious Roman believers of various Gods, also were exposed by Cicero to believe in a similar fallacy. Through the reaction of St.Augustine, the fallacy of a fixed cause could be presented.
Where is the absurdity?
St. Augustine's thesis is Free-will or free choice is fixed by the Christian God. The anti-thesis: the rational option, is the supposition and the belief that Free-will or free choice is unfixed.
St. Augustine of Hippo presents his thesis summarized in one statement: " Hence we are in no way compelled either to preserve God's prescience by abolishing our free will, or to safeguard our free will by denying (blasphemously) the divine foreknowledge "(Source: City of God, Book 5 - Chapter 10).
The previous thesis statement above was an accumulation of the observation from the previous chapter in St.Augustine's book. The previous chapter, chapter 9 of the same Book 5, is titled: God's foreknowledge and man's free will; a criticism of Cicero. In other words, Augustine was presenting the absurd rationale: fixed cause means fixed effect. Therefore, attempting to validate the existence of predestination or his concept of Christian "destiny". Furthermore; according to Augustine, and later elaborated by St. Thomas Aquinas, the belief of "First Cause" equates to predestination or fixed effect.
The problem of the previous fallacy is the existence of "free-will" conjoined with the two destinations for "souls": Heaven and Hell. Then the continuation of actions and reactions, by "souls", in the so-called afterlife. The core of the fallacy is "First" Cause deriving from so-called fixed cause.
The list and statements by St. Augustine of Hippo, within the previous stated chapter of his book, with a rebuttal:
1 ) " If the order of events is determined, so is the causal order; for nothing can happen unless preceded by an efficient cause. If the causal order is fixed, determining all events, then all events, he concludes, are ordered by destiny. If this is true, nothing depends on us and there is no such thing as free will". REBUTTAL: Cicero's observation and conclusion, in the previous statement paraphrased by Augustine in his book, is valid. Cicero's negation of "foreknowledge" was proven but Augustine later calls it "absurd". Therefore; as an early naturalist and materialist, Cicero discredited not only the Christian belief system but also the beliefs of the Stoics. The problem of Augustine is that he uses a logical fallacy to counter Cicero's argument.
2 ) " If we choose foreknowledge, free will is annihilated; if we choose free will, prescience is abolished". REBUTTAL: Cicero is correct but Augustine continues with his presentation but it has already been proven that efficient cause is unfixed. The error of Augustine is the use of Free-will with 'cause and effect' to prove the existence of God or the Christian God.
3 ) " if there is free will, everything does not happen by fate; if everything does not happen by fate, there is not a fixed order of all causes; if there is not a fixed order of all causes, there is not a fixed order of events for the divine prescience, for these events cannot take place unless preceded by efficient causes; if there is not a fixed order for God's prescience, everything does not happen as he has foreknown them as due to happen. Thus, he concludes, if everything does not happen as foreknown by God, then there is in him no foreknowledge of all the future". REBUTTAL: The problem by Augustine is the usage of the term "fixed" but the end result of "predestination"(not destiny), expressed within Augustine's belief system, negates the idea of a rational unfixed cause and effect. This is the reason why I mentioned earlier that the term "first" cause is invalid in Thomas Aquinas' second argument concerning First Cause. Therefore, it is possible to separate a neutral creator with an unfixed cause. Simply, "cause and effect" or causality is a natural process and it does not prove nor disprove a creator. However; the previous presentation, in volumes, disproves the idea of a Christian creator or the idea of a "fixed" cause which results in a "fixed" effect (For example, Heaven and Hell for "souls"). Also, the validity of Paul's and John's predictions or so-called prophecies were proven flawed.
4 ) " God knows all things before they happen and that we do by our free will everything that we feel and know would not happen without our volition. We do not say that everything is fated; in fact we deny that anything happens by destiny. For we have shown that the notion of destiny, in the accepted sense, referring to conjunction of stars at the time of conception or birth, has no validity, since it asserts something which has no reality. It is not that we deny a causal order where the will of God prevails; but we do not describe it by the word 'fate', unless perhaps if we understand fate to be derived from fari(speak), that is from the act of speaking". REBUTTAL: Augustine continues in the frame of thought concerning the flawed - fixed cause and fixed effect. In other words, attempting to verify or justify predestination. Nevertheless, Augustine attempts to separate the fate understood by the Stoics and the "fate" or predestination believed by the Christians but he still fails to differentiate the two.
5 ) " Now if there is for God a fixed order of all causes, it does not follow that nothing depends on our free choice. Our wills themselves are in the order of causes, which is, for God, fixed, and is contained in his foreknowledge, since human acts of will are the causes of human activities. Therefore he who had prescience of the causes of all events certainly could not be ignorant of our decisions, which he foreknows as the causes of our actions". REBUTTAL: Augustine again presents his theory - Fixed (First) Cause --> Fixed Effect (Predestination). Foreknowledge makes everyone's actions, free-will or free choice, linear to a predestined result(predestination) from a fixed effect. The previous linear thinking leads to the obvious model - First Cause --> First Effect. In reality, our actions and free-will or free choice is non-linear therefore leading to several effects. The proper theory is therefore presented - First Cause --> Several (Multiple) Effects. Or rather 'cause and effect' or causality which is empirically known through the behavior of a probable 'big bang' of the universe. The previous observation also refutes Thomas Aquinas' earlier idea of an Unmoved Mover because it could not be proven. Which leads to the 50% probability principle: The possibility of a neutral creator or the possibility concerning the absence of a creator(no creator).
The rest of the chapter located within St. Augustine's book repeats his position and subjects which were already discussed. Augustine goes to introduce the idea of supernatural causes with natural causes which are irrelevant to the foregone conclusion.
Therefore, our actions or free-will could not prove nor disprove the existence of a creator. Furthermore, our actions or free-will should be to enjoin good and forbid evil. The error by St. Augustine was to defend the religion of Christianity by utilizing these natural reactions to discredit the arguments by the "pagan" Romans. The capture and destruction of Rome by Alaric in A.D. 410 was then illogically seen by the populace as an "omen", hence, the debate between Roman Christians and Roman Pagans which compelled Augustine to compose the book and argument (A.D. 413 - A.D. 430). The actual title of the book is Concerning the City of God against the Pagans or in Latin - De Civitate Dei contra Paganos.
The above is proof St. Augustine of Hippo, despite his true insights in some subjects, was still holding on to the fallacy of predestination (or "fate" or "destiny") and several flawed superstitions in connection with "predestination". The reason is because of his usage of "free-will" and "cause and effect" to prove the existence of a creator. The root of this fallacy started out in his belief of the Book of Revelation written by John. The confirmation concerning the flawed concept of predestination is stated through the term - "Alpha and Omega" (Revelation 1:8,1:11,21:6, and 22:13). Furthermore, contained in the verses of Revelation 1:11 and 22:13 it has "...first and the last..." which is a confirmation of the fallacy of predestination or "fate".
There once lived a fanatic in France, by the name of Blaise Pascal (1623-1662), who wrote Pensees which details how to force non-Christians into becoming Christians. The proof through the life of Blaise Pascal proves that one could be fanatical and a genius simultaneously. The book of Pensees contains a formula or a wager or bet concerning the predestination of "souls". However; the said book also proves that our free-will is not part of the predestination of any creator because why control the environment and variables of the life of a disbeliever, to force them to believe, if predestination exist? Well, Blaise Pascal is not perfect.
The reason for his genius lays in the fact that he developed a theory or a formula which is commonly in use today. Blaise Pascal developed four formulas: Pascal's wager, Pascal's triangle, Pascal's law, and Pascal's theorem. There are three formulas which could be used to disprove the previous problem of predestination. The mathematical and geometric formula of Pascal's theorem is not relevant in any form to the presentation and will not be used. Therefore, the previous life of Blaise Pascal proves that even through the writing and mental illness of a fanatical "religious" individual, natural laws could still be calculated. The previous rationale of why the Bible still contains natural truths in the midst of the flawed writings of a supposedly supernatural deity.
The workings of Pascal's law describes that a change of pressure in any part of a liquid within a container(controlled environment) equally redistributes to the rest of the liquid. The previous proves that David Hume's dictum of - one could not derive an 'ought' from an 'is' - especially true if anyone uses Pascal's law to prove St.Augustine's and Aquinas' fixed (first) cause. The error is the controlled environment of such equal redistribution of nature. For example, our actions and reactions are not under a controlled environment of predestination. The supposed absurdity within Pascal's Pensees proves social control to change someone's belief system, especially in the natural environment of free choice or free-will, to be futile and even foolish.
The next formula of interest is Pascal's triangle which describes the order of numbers. The top of the triangle would be a "1" which is k = 0. This could be represented, for the presented argument, as our own actions. The numbers below,"1", are "1+1" the visible reactions and therefore the next row below is developed: "1+2+1". If this goes on, the value of ( 1 ) would still be expressed on both sides of the triangle. The imagination develops a flawed theory: The final destination of both ( 1 ), on the side of the triangle, leads to either "heaven" or "hell". The problem with the previous flawed theory would be the existence and the destinations of various numbers located between the value of both ( 1 ) on the side of the triangle. Therefore, through example or rather the analogy of Pascal's triangle, the proof of 'First Cause to Multiple Effects' is proven. Therefore, the theory presented by St. Augustine of Hippo, of 'Fixed Cause' is refuted.
The conclusion is given: no fixed cause and no fixed effect or no predestination. Therefore, the refutation of predestination negates the existence of "heaven" and "hell". In other words, there is no "heaven" and there is no "hell". Furthermore, there are no angels and there are no demons. The concept of "Original Sin" disappears as this is also connected with the ceremonies of the original Jewish priests of the Temple/Tabernacle structures. The story of 'Adam and Eve' is now a work of fiction by the writers of the Old Testament. Finally; our actions have been freed from "omen(s)","fate", and "destiny". Furthermore, the terms of "blessing(s)" and "curse(s)" no longer exist. All the said previous terms are connected with the previous fictional works and superstitions.
The presentation of Pascal's wager is now given. I will present my point of view to the wager and later explain why. The alternative terms will be discussed and why they were not used. I prefer using my point of view because it is the view of a reasonable reacting agent rather than the view of the acting agent(Blaise Pascal). The former view will be shown to be the reasonable view and the later the irrational one. The whole contents of the text are given with a proposed summary. The dialectical convergence is now shown between the proposed 50% probability and the said wager:

"Who then will blame Christians for not being able to give a reason for
their belief, since they profess a religion for which they cannot give
a reason? They declare, in expounding it to the world, that it is a
foolishness, stultitiam; [28] and then you complain that they do not
prove it! If they proved it, they would not keep their word; it is in
lacking proofs that they are not lacking in sense. "Yes, but although
this excuses those who offer it as such and takes away from them the
blame of putting it forward without reason, it does not excuse those
who receive it." Let us then examine this point, and say, "God is, or
He is not." But to which side shall we incline? Reason can decide
nothing here. There is an infinite chaos which separated us. A game is
being played at the extremity of this infinite distance where heads or
tails will turn up. What will you wager? According to reason, you can
do neither the one thing nor the other; according to reason, you can
defend neither of the propositions.
Do not, then, reprove for error those who have made a choice; for you
know nothing about it. "No, but I blame them for having made, not this
choice, but a choice; for again both he who chooses heads and he who
chooses tails are equally at fault, they are both in the wrong. The
true course is not to wager at all."
Yes; but you must wager. It is not optional. You are embarked. Which
will you choose then? Let us see. Since you must choose, let us see
which interests you least. You have two things to lose, the true and
the good; and two things to stake, your reason and your will, your
knowledge and your happiness; and your nature has two things to shun,
error and misery. Your reason is no more shocked in choosing one rather
than the other, since you must of necessity choose. This is one point
settled. But your happiness? Let us weigh the gain and the loss in
wagering that God is. Let us estimate these two chances. If you gain,
you gain all; if you lose, you lose nothing. Wager, then, without
hesitation that He is. "That is very fine. Yes, I must wager; but I may
perhaps wager too much." Let us see. Since there is an equal risk of
gain and of loss, if you had only to gain two lives, instead of one,
you might still wager. But if there were three lives to gain, you would
have to play (since you are under the necessity of playing), and you
would be imprudent, when you are forced to play, not to chance your
life to gain three at a game where there is an equal risk of loss and
gain. But there is an eternity of life and happiness. And this being
so, if there were an infinity of chances, of which one only would be
for you, you would still be right in wagering one to win two, and you
would act stupidly, being obliged to play, by refusing to stake one
life against three at a game in which out of an infinity of chances
there is one for you, if there were an infinity of an infinitely happy
life to gain. But there is here an infinity of an infinitely happy life
to gain, a chance of gain against a finite number of chances of loss,
and what you stake is finite. It is all divided; where-ever the
infinite is and there is not an infinity of chances of loss against
that of gain, there is no time to hesitate, you must give all. And
thus, when one is forced to play, he must renounce reason to preserve
his life, rather than risk it for infinite gain, as likely to happen as
the loss of nothingness. "

(SOURCE: Pensees; Section 3: Of the Necessity of the Wager, Point 233 - 7th through 9th paragraphs)

The proposed summary of Pascal's wager:
* If God exist and I believe = Infinite Gain ("Heaven")
* If God exist and I don't believe = Infinite Loss ("Hell")
* If God does not exist and I believe = Reason Lost
* If God does not exist and I don't believe = Reason Gained

All the previous evidence guides any sane individual to the conclusion that the God of Augustine does not exist along with the 'Fixed Cause' fallacy or predestination. I added "Reason" rather than "Temporal" or "Material" because there's evidence within Pensees that Blaise Pascal also attacked Rene Descartes' usage of the term "Reason". Blaise Pascal is criticizing, early, cartesian rationalism which states reason alone guarantees knowledge. The problem of both Blaise Pascal and Rene Descartes is the foundation of a flawed belief system in which is used to conclude their theories. Of course, we have the words of Blaise Pascal himself: the individual "must renounce reason" to preserve one's life.

What is the rationale derived from reason to explain our actions? The given theory of Pascal's triangle will be borrowed again in the next presentation. The proposed theory is given and presented as 'Probability wager':
* If no neutral creator do good works = Positive charge into society
* If no neutral creator no good works = Negative charge into society
* If neutral creator exist do good works = Positive charge into society
* If neutral creator exist no good works = Negative charge into society

The above is true among all individuals despite their various belief system or the lack of a belief system. The 'utility' of our action does not in any way proves or disproves the existence of a neutral creator it simply verifies our existence as contributors to society. The above 'Probability wager' leaves the question unanswered concerning a deity or creator and concentrates on the behavior of individuals - the end result of our actions. The flip of the coin (50% result), referenced and hinted by Blaise Pascal in Pensees, is left alone and the importance of the end result of any actions towards every individual is concentrated on.

The subject concerning "positive" and "negative" charge into society, by each individual in society, is discussed in the following chapter. The proceeding chapter discusses the highly probable origin of "positive" and "negative" charges and their results. The role of the acting agent and the various reacting agents, within society, have been proven through Pascal's triangle and the consequent 'Probability Wager'.

The acting agent is the sole individual and everyone else in society is the reacting agents. The subject concerning "God" exists outside of the acting agents and therefore would be a projected agent. The projected agent could be "God", the state or another object. There are two types of projected agents: proven projected agents and unproven projected agents. For example, the idea or belief of a neutral creator could not be verified or proven while the idea of a state entity could be proven. For instance, when a child is born it knows nothing and is born with a "blank slate". The previous term was used by John Locke(1632-1704) and called the previous state of being as "tabula rasa". Therefore, through our experiences there are two types of projected agents: Proven and Unproven. Hence, the reason for the 50% probability principle in proving at least the existence of a neutral creator.